DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT A SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER
1.1 Background of the Study
Energy plays vital role for development in all sectors. With depletion of fossil fuels used
for power generation and increase in demand for power, the gap between supply and
demand is becoming more. Renewable energy sources can only provide solution to face
this energy crisis. Out of renewable energy options, solar energy is the most potential
source for all tropical countries. Sun radiates 180 billion MW of energy over Earth Just
one hour of this energy could meet power needs of entire planet for a year. This energy is clean, pollution free and inexhaustible and is available free and in abundance. Basically the components
involved in solar system are PV panel, DC-DC Converter, Battery, Inverter.
The PV panel produces electrical voltage/current from solar energy. This solar panel can
produce more than the rated voltage to the battery which can be dangerous to the battery
due to the high radiation of the sun. In order to tackle the present energy crisis it is
necessary to develop an efficient manner in which power has to be extracted from the
incoming solar radiation. The use of the newest power control mechanisms called solar
charge controller was invented. Solar Charge controller is basically a voltage and/or current regulator to keep batteries from overcharging.Solar Charge Controller is fully configurable and developed to- meet the highest industry standards to ensure maximal efficiency in retrieving energy from any PV system. When connected to solar panels and batteries, the solar charge controller automatically charges the batteries in an optimal way with all the available solar power. Solar charger controller's sophisticated three stage charge control system can be configured to optimize charge parameters to precise battery requirements. The unit is fully protected against voltage transients, over temperature, over current, reverse battery and reverse PV connections. An automatic current limit feature allows use of the full capability without worrying about overload from excessive current, voltage or amp-hour based load control.
1.2 Statement of Problem
There are inherent power losses that occur when the solar panel is connected directly to a load/battery without matching their internal impedances for which in addition to the non- linear (I-V) operating characteristics of a PV module and variations in its output power with solar insolation and operating temperature; an MPPT charge controller is used in most solar power harvesting systems to ensure maximum rated power is drawn from the solar panel and delivered to the battery while charging it in a healthy mode to increase its lifespan and for efficiency purposes under varying atmospheric conditions.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Project
The aim of this project is to Design and Implement a Solar Charge Controller.
The specific objectives of the study are outlined below:
⦁ To design an efficient MPPT charge controller with a maximum charging rate of 20A.
⦁ To implement a fast and fairly accurate maximum power point tracking algorithm,
several of which will be discussed, that also charges a battery in stages for healthy
⦁ To design the MPPT charge controller system to be Plug-and-Play, user-friendly and
display the vital operational parameters of the system.
1.4 Significance of the Project
Solar Charge controller is basically a voltage and/or current regulator to keep batteries
from overcharging. It regulates the voltage and current coming from the solar panels going
to the battery. Most "12 volt" panels put out about 16 to 20 volts, so if there is no
regulation the batteries will be damaged from overcharging. Most batteries need around
14 to 14.5 volts to get fully charged. Solar Charge controller may also monitor battery temperature to prevent overheating. Some charge controller systems also display data, transmit data to remote displays, and data logging to track electric flow over time.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Project
The main scope of project is, the photovoltaic cells are converting the sunlight in to
electricity a charge controller is used. PV cells are bundled together in modules or panels
to produce higher voltages and increased power. As the sunlight varies in intensity the
electricity so generated usually charges through the charge a set of batteries for storing the
energy. Controller in this project is used: To generate the variable PWM for DC-DC
CONVERTER, to control the battery voltage and Controlling the load variation.