This project, Expert system on Malaria and Typhoid Diagnosis, is a software system tailored for use in the diagnosis of malaria and typhoid diseases.  The software is an expert system with a database containing an expert knowledge.  The user only uses it to determine whether he or she has any of the diseases within its domain.  The software has been designed to be interactive with audio capability eliciting from the user if they have symptoms of the diseases. The user response helps the expert system to determine the level at which the disease is present.  The user is further advised on what next to do.  This software is implemented in visual basic programming environment, Health care facility should be accessible by all at all time.  But some of the people that should access these facilities are far removed from these facilities. It would be of great necessity to provide a computerized system that will provide a complementary medical service, such as medical disease diagnosis in places where accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Expert System on Malaria and typhoid fever Diagnose.

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                          Page

Title page






Table of Contents

List of Figures


1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    13

1.2    Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    15

1.3    Objectives of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    15

1.4    Significance of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    16

1.5      Scope of the project    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    16

1.6    Limitation of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    --    16

1.7      Definition of terns/variables    -    -    -    -    -    -    17


2.1    Overview of Expert System    -    -    -    -    -    -    18   

2.2    Prominent expert systems and languages    -    -    -    -    19

2.3    The study of expert systems    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

2.3.1    Knowledge representation    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

2.3.2    Knowledge engineer    -    -    -    -    -    --    -    20

2.4.    End user    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    21

2.4.1     Explanation system    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    22

2.5    Expert systems versus problem-solving systems    -    -    -    24   

2.6     Individuals involved with expert systems    -    -    -    -    25

2.7    Application of expert systems    -    -    -    -    -    -    26

2.8     Advantages and disadvantages    -    -    -    -    -    -    29

2.9     Types of problems solved by expert systems    -    -    -    29

CHAPTER THREE:    ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SYSTEM AND NEW 3.1Systems Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    31

3.2 Fact finding method    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    31

3.3   objective of a new system    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    32

3.4   Input analysis     of existing system-    -    -    -    -    -    32

3.5    Output analysis of existing system-    -    -    -    -    -    33

3.6    Information flow diagram    -    -    -    -    -    -    35

3.7    Problem of existing system    -    -    -    -    -    -    36   

3.8    Justification of a new system    -    -    -    -    -    -    36


4.1    System design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    37

4.1.1    User Interface design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    37

4.1.2    Database design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    38

4.2    Language choice    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    43

4.3    Choice of the environment    -    -    -    -    -    -    43

4.4    Implementation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    43

4.4.1    Main system implementation    -    -    -    -    -    -    43

4.4.2    Data implementation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    44

4.5    Software testing    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    45

4.5.1    Testing plan    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    45

4.5.2    System testing    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    45

4.5.3    Main system driver testing    -    -    -    -    -    -    45

4.5.4    Database Testing    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    45

4.6    Cost Analysis/Evaluation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    46


5.1    Summary of achievement        -    -    -    -    -    -    47

5.2    Problems encountered solutions        -    -    -    -    -    47

5.3    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    47

5.4    Suggestions for further improvement    -    -    -    -    -    48

5.5    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    48



Appendix    A:    System Source Code

Appendix    B:    Typical Input Forms with Data

Appendix    C:    Typical Report

Appendix    D:    System User’s Guide


Fig 3.1                Sample medical examination form    33

Fig 3.2                Sample of medical lab report        34

Fig 3.3                Information Flow diagram        35

Fig 4.1                Diagnosis form                38

Fig 4.2                Database flow chart            40

Fig 4.3                Program flow chart            41

Fig 4.4                Program control flowchart        42

Fig 4.5                Main system implementation window    43

Fig 4.6                Table implementation            44



1.1    Background of the Study

An expert system is a software system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. A wide variety of methods can be used to simulate the performance of the expert however common to most or all are

1) The creation of a so-called "knowledgebase" which uses some knowled+`ge representation formalism to capture the subject matter experts (SME) knowledge and

2) A process of gathering that knowledge from the SME and codifying it according to the formalism, which is called knowledge engineering. Expert systems may or may not have learning components but a third common element is that once the system is developed it is proven by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation as the human SME, typically as an aid to human workers or a supplement to some information system.

As a premiere application of computing and artificial intelligence, the topic of expert systems has many points of contact with general systems theory, operations research, business process reengineering and various topics in applied mathematics and management science.

Two illustrations of actual expert systems can give an idea of how they work. In one real world case at a chemical refinery a senior employee was about to retire and the company was concerned that the loss of his expertise in managing a fractionating tower would severely impact operations of the plant. A knowledge engineer was assigned to produce an expert system reproducing his expertise saving the company the loss of the valued knowledge asset. Similarly a system called Mycin was developed from the expertise of best diagnosticians of bacterial infections whose performance was found to be as good as or better than the average clinician. An early commercial success and illustration of another typical application (a task generally considered overly complex for a human) was an expert system fielded by DEC in the 1980s to quality check the configurations of their computers prior to delivery. The eighties were the time of greatest popularity of expert systems and interest lagged after the onset of the AI Winter.

In like manner, developing one of such system to represent the repository of the knowledge of a medical doctor is as essential as any other expert system.  To this end, this project, Expert System on the Diagnosis of non communicable diseases is a necessity.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Health care facility should be accessible by all at all times.  But some of the people that should access these facilities are far removed from these facilities.  More so, in the few available facilities, qualified medical personnel are always key issues that need urgent redress.  

In view of the foregoing, it would be of great necessity to provide a computerized system that will provide a complementary medical service, such as medical disease diagnosis in places where accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Expert System on Malaria and typhoid fever Diagnosis.

1.3      Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this work is to develop an expert system on diagnosis of non communicable diseases.  It also targets towards contributing to academic research work.

It is also to ascertain whether the diseases could be diagnosed based on signs and symptoms.

It will also examine a patient based on simple clinical signs, and to improve family and community health

1.4     Significance of the Study

If this prototype is fully developed will be very useful in many areas such as:

a.    It will help to retain the skill of an expert medical doctor in case of any eventuality;

b.     It can support academic development;

c.    It can be useful in many hospitals, both private and government, cases where the expert is not on seat;

d.    It can also be used in the laboratory for quick research work.

1.5      Scope of the Project

The scope of this work will include the following

1.    A dynamic database system that can act as a knowledge based system

2.    A complete model of an expert system to portray sample troubleshooter

3.    Explore the power of visual basic in data handling

4.    To implement a dynamic search system

1.6       Limitations of the Study

The major constraint faced during the implementation of this work was finance.  This is among other frustrations such as program failures during modular construction stages.  Time was another important factor that limited the extent to which I want to research.

1.7    Definition of Terms/Variables

Diagnose: The identifying of an illness or disorder in a patient through physical examination, medical tests, or other procedures

Medical:  Relating to medicine, physical examination to determine health: a physical examination by a doctor to check

Malaria:   An infectious disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Common in tropical countries, the disease is characterized by recurring chills and fever.

Typhoid:   A disease condition or a serious fatal bacterial infection of the digestive system, caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with the bacillus Salmonella typhoid.

Communicable:  A communicable disease that can be passed from one person

Expert:  somebody with a great deal of knowledge, skill, training, or experience in a particular field or activity a medical expert

Knowledge-based:  Information system that store wealth of ones knowledge

Symptoms:  Signs of an ill health




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