DETERMINATION OF HEADWAY AND AVERAGE TRAVEL SPEED OF VEHICLES (A Case study of post office-Kwara State Polytechnic permanent Site Car park Road)
Since it is compulsory that people and goods move from one part of the country to the other or within particular defined regional area, the facilities used for this purpose need to be well planned, designed and constructed. Inadequate and unplanned traffic control constitute a lot of problems resulting in delay, congestion, immobility to uneasy access to transport etc. This project is to determine the headway and average travel speed of vehicles (Case study of post office- Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site car park road). In order to determine the time taken, distance, speed of a vehicle of the existing road network. Having considered the necessary observations from the post- office to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site car park we are able to observe that the distance is 10. 5km and the time taken varies where the lowest value of time taken from day one is sixteen (16) minutes while the highest is twenty two minutes (22) while on the second day we were able to determine the time taken from 8: 19am – 9: 30am and the total lowest value of the time taken is twenty (20) minutes while the highest is twenty two (22) minutes and the total average headway for the day one is 3.5 minutes while the total average headway for the day two practical is 4.5 minutes and the determination of the average speed of the day one practical is 11.2km per hour while the average speed for the second day practical is 11. 20km per hour and the total value for day 1 and 2 is 11. 15km per hour and also we are able to determine the day like Monday, Tuesday, Friday are the days that have much masses while Wednesday, Thursday are not much and also from the result, the Average Daily Time (ADT) of traffic volume shows that morning peak hour flow is 8: 00am to 9: 00am everyday, due to Kwara state polytechnic permanent site students and also the staff and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) that was moved to Oke- Oyi which was sited along the same direction, due to movement of student and workers that are going to their normal daily activities and also the afternoon peak hour is 4: 00pm to 5: 00pm when they are returning from their daily activities but the traffic flow is high in the morning than that of the afternoon peak hour flow.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vi
List of Table vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem 2
1.2 Aim of the Project 3
1.3 Objectives of the Project 3
1.3 Methodology 3
1.4 Scope of the Project 4
1.5 Justification of the Project 4
2.0 Literature Review 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Delay Studies 6
2.3 Spot Speed Studies 7
2.4 Traffic Volume Studies 7
2.5 Traffic Signs 8
2.6 Traffic Signals 14
2.7 Factor that Contribute to Journey time 15
3.1 Methodology 19
3.2 Headway 19
3.3 Average Speed 20
3.4 Explanation on Headway 22
3.5 Delay Studies 23
3.6 Delay Studies 24
4.0 Data Analysis and Discussion of Result 34
4.1 Discussion on Traffic Volume 34
4.2 Traffic Volume Study 35
4.3 Average Traffic Volume 36
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion 38
5.2 Recommendation 39
LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
3.1 The table below shows the Analysis of Different Travel
Time of Vehicles for the Determination of Their Headways. 21
3.2 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on
Monday 1st May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road. 26
3.3 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on
Monday 2nd May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road. 26
3.4 Vehicle composition for both Direction on Monday
3rd May, 2017 at post office – Maraba Road. 27
3.5: Vehicle Composition for both direction on Monday
4th May, 2017 at post office – Maraba road. 27
3.6 Vehicle Composition for Both Direction on Monday
5th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road. 28
3.7 Vehicle composition for both directions on Monday
6th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road. 28
3.8 Vehicle composition for both Direction on Monday
7th May, 2017 at Post Office – Maraba Road. 29
The determination of headway and average travel speed on a road network cannot be over emphasized as concerns the transportation. Headway and average travel speed are among the imperative parameters to be mentioned in the consideration of traffic flow. The efficient evaluation of headway and average travel speed is important for their contribution to the effectiveness of road network functionality therefore adequate management practices are needed.
Headway is a measurement of the minimum possible distance or time between vehicles in a transit system. It is commonly measured as the distance from the tip of one vehicle to the tip of next one behind it, expressed as the time it will take for the tracing vehicle to cover that distance.
Headway is a key input in calculating most overall route capacity of any transit system e.g the route of Ilorin post office to the permanent site of Kwara state polytechnic Ilorin.
Headway spacing is selected by various safety criteria, but the basic concept remains the same – leave enough time for the vehicle to safety stop behind the vehicle in front of it.
The safety stop criteria has a non obvious solution, however, if a vehicle follow immediately behind the one in front, the vehicle in front simply cannot stop quickly enough to damage the vehicle behind.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are parameters that contributes traffic flows which headway and vehicle average travel speed are among - the determination and proper management of headway and average travel speed is hereby important as the improper management of road traffic flow cause lots of hindrance in transportation and also affects the populace in their day- in- day-out activities.
When the number of traffic is dense, there tends to be a traffic jam which can definitely maximize the time spent by the motorist or other road users to get to their various destination. As the number of vehicle tends to rise at a particular point on a road channel, it brings about the flow density being extremely large and this may affect the normal spacing (headway) in between the vehicles that are present on that road channel. The speed of vehicle is also affected by high volume of vehicles present at a point on a given road E.g. post office to Kwara State- Polytechnic permanent site as the driver can only make use of the space available for them.
1.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to determine the headway and average travel speed of vehicle on the Post office-Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site car park road.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective of the project include the following.
1. To check on the maintenance of normal headway of vehicle trading from post office to the permanent site of kwara state polytechnic Car Park.
2. To consider the usual time taken for a vehicle traversing the road due to indiscriminate parking along the road side.
3. To check on the average travel speed of different vehicles on the road (Post-Office to Kwara State Polytechnic Car Park).
4. To consider the journey speed of vehicle trading from post office to Kwara State Polytechnic Car Park Including all delays.
The method of study can be defined as the techniques that will be used to carry out the research work on both roads. So, the various methods that will be employed to carry out this research include:
1. Reconnaissance survey.
2. Field Study.
3. Manual and mechanical Traffic Count.
4. Analysis of Data.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project work is limited to the procedures involved in making standard policy and good comfort on our road network especially Post Office to Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site, Ilorin and putting in mind, the shortenings of improper implementation of road network policies. The project will be lucid enough to be as a guide that will allow our road maintenance agencies to know the effect of base functionality of our road network and to provide suitable correction for each problem stated.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
The failure of the existing strategies used in the provision of standard maintenance of road traffic flow as left many road users in transportation difficulties. For every road which is a busy type such as post office to Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site there should be an adequate maintenance of the traffic flow so as to reduce or curb away every set backs faced by the road users.
The outcomes and associated outputs of this project work would enable our government to provide adequate measure on the superior and maintenance of our road to avoid further occurrence of road problems.
Finally this study would stimulate research in new and other research areas that are hokey to provide useful data to in form policy making planning decision and advocacy efforts on our road..