This project goes into detailed evaluation of tricycle as public means of transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encounter in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are some few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspect of Safety. If it is done continuosly, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.



Title page                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                iv

Table of contents                                                                                  v-vii

List of tables                                                                                          viii-ix

Abstract                                                                                                    x


1.0 Introduction                                                                                    1

1.1 Statement of the problem                                                            1

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study                                                                  2

1.3 Justification of the theory                                                            2-3

1.4 Scope of the study                                                                          3-4

1.5 Description of the study area                                                        4-5

1.6 Proposed Methodology                                                                  5-6


2.0 Literature Review                                                                              7

2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation                                            7

2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public

       Transport in an urban area                                                              8

2.3 Short coming of Tricycle                                                                  8-9

2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle        9-10

2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist)    10-11


3.0 Methodology                                                                                        12

3.1 Oral Interview                                                                                      12-13

3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire                                                                    13-14

3.3 Field Work                                                                                              14

3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C)  laws 2010          14-15


4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result                                                        16

4.1 Introduction                                                                                            16

4.2 Oral Interview                                                                                          16

4.3 Questionnaire                                                                                          17

4.4 Field Work                                                                                            17-18

Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist)                                                  21-23

Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running 

of the trade                                                                                      21


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           23

5.1 Conclusion 

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                23

      References                                                                                          24  



The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).

Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire.The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front.KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country.In an ironic metaphor,the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.”Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.


The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit.This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business.The various transport corporations recognize this fact.Over the years and prior to this contemporary age,a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight,on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;

1. What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and subsequently in Kwara State?

2. To what extent are these motives being achieved?


1. The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango


1. To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.

2. To determine the significance of  tricycle compare to other means of public transport


Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.


This study is limited to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis. The major factor considered here is 

1. Avoidance of overloading

2. Adherence to the approved speed limit

3. Abstains from drunkenness

4. Avoidance of rough riding

5. Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety

6. We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour

7. The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.


All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;

i. Exposure to rainfall: In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE                                                            (Keke  Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually get wet when travelling.

ii. Excessive Wind pressure: the two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no doors unlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the passengers to high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially when the vehicle is on high speed.

iii. Uncomfortability : on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The  bigger the passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.

iv. Accident: The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

1.5 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA (case study of Ipata-Sango) Ilorin.

From IOT, take a bike straight to Ipata. Ipata is usually a marketing area and a very busy place too. There are two lanes road at ipata with shop available along the roadside. Tricycles are also common in that area.

Challenge Road

CBN Road

Oja Oba Road

From Ipata, there is a straight road that links to MurtalaRoad and by the left is round about, immediately after the roundabout is straight route to Sango. Sango is also a commercial centre (marketing place) with more lively feature than Ipata. There is a ministry of Agriculture at Sango, a mobile police station and Tricycles are very common there. From Sango, there is straight route to kwara State Polytechnic permanentsite(ps)


Challenge Road

CBN Road

Oja Oba Road

Sabo Oke Road

Amilege Roaad

Ipata Road

Sabo Line Road

Sango Road

Figure 1.1: Description of Case Study


In collecting data for this project work, various methods were employed. Data used was collected by using both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary collection method includes.

i. The administration of structured questionnaires

ii. Personal interviews (with selected of staff and passengers) observations.

The secondary method includes the use of related texts

iii. Related texts

iv. Journals

v. Magazines and write up on the use of Tricycle as a public transport system

vi. Annual report and account of profit maximization. This help to give a clear exploration of the study.




Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.