INVESTIGATION INTO THE SUITABILITY OF SAND AND GRAVEL MATERIALS COMMONLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION


INVESTIGATION INTO THE SUITABILITY OF SAND AND GRAVEL MATERIALS COMMONLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION  

ABSTRACT

This report comprises the use of aggregate both fine and coarse aggregate in the production of concrete, these coarse aggregate are strong in compressive strength of concrete. The coarse and fine aggregate that posses both physical and mechanical properties in the production of concrete which in a correct proportion to give desire strength of the concrete. The mixing ratio that was used is 1:2:4 which known as pure mixing and the other ratio is ratio 1:3:6. 1:2:4 gives 1 head pan of cement with 2 head pan of sharp sand or fine aggregate while 4 head pan for coarse aggregate. After the production of the casted cube, curing was carried out. The duration of the curing is 7 days, 14 days, 28 days. After the curing days, compressive strength test was performed to determine the suitability of the sand and gravel materials in the strength of concrete generally used in the building construction. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Table of contents vi

Abstract vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1Statement of the problem1

1.2 Aim and objectives 2

1.2.1 Objectives of the study 2

1.3 Justification of the study 2

1.4 Scope of study 3

1.5 Methodology 3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review 4

2.1 Cement 6

2.1.1 Properties of cement 7

2.2 Water 8

2.3 Sand 8

2.4 Granite 9

2.5 Grading of aggregate 9

2.6 mix proportion method 9

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research methodology 10

3.1 Mold acquisition 10

3.2 Quantity of materials needed for a concrete cube 10

3.2.1 Procedure uses 13

3.3 Mix design 14

3.3.1 Sorting and mixing procedure 14

3.4 Sieve size analysis 15

3.4.1 Sieve analysis test 15

3.4.2 Preparation for sieve analysis test 16

3.4.2.1 Procedure for sieve analysis test 16

3.5 Concrete slump test 16

3.5.1 Principle of slump test 17

3.5.2 Apparatus 17

3.5.3 Procedure for slump test 17

3.5.4 Limitation of the slump test 18

3.5.5 Differences in standard 18

3.6 Compressive strength test 18

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and discussion 28

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and recommendation 32

References 32

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Sand and Gravel (Aggregate) are generally used in construction of building and other structures such as Lintel, Slab, Beam and Column. When concrete is freshly mixed the aggregates are suspended in cement, water, air bubble paste. Selection of types and size gradation of the aggregate depend upon the nature of the aggregate employed, a fairly precise balanced between the amount of fine and coarse aggregate size fraction may have to be maintained to achieve the desire mobility, plasticity and freedom from segregation (Olajide B.T 2013). Presence of aggregate provides an enormous contact area for intimate bond between the paste and the aggregate surfaces. Rigidity of aggregate greatly restrains volume change of the whole mass. Aggregate (sand and gravel) can be classified by their mineral, chemical, and physical properties, aggregate physical properties and direct result of its mineral and chemical properties, significantly improve the workability of the fresh concrete are contributed by proper choice of aggregate, this improvement is important in the properties of hardened concrete as well, such as properties and pavement slipperiness. 

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research work is comprises the finding of the fine and coarse aggregate from different area in Ilorin metropolis and uses of different aggregate size for the production of concrete and the compressive strength test is carryout to determine the compressive strength of concrete produced with different sizes of coarse aggregate.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material use in the construction of buildings.

1.2.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ARE:

a) To determine how gravel can be use for commercial purpose.

b) To determine the strength capacity of the two materials i.e. sand and gravel for the purpose of construction.

c) To be able to recommend a particular practicable design ratio for aggregate in the construction of a building.

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The sand and gravel has been the principal construction material worldwide. Sand and gravel represent loose sediments originated by transport and deposition of more or less worn rock fragmented of certain size (Gravel 2 to 129mm, sand 0.065 to 2mm) which is the product of the weathering of rocks.

The ultimate use of sand and gravel determines the ratio of combination of sand and gravel size, the shape, rock type and composition. Sand and gravel are used mostly in the building industry in concrete mixtures, as drainage and filtration layers, road base fill and for foundation stabilization, e.g. sand are used in the building industry in mortar and concrete mixtures as an opening material in production of bricks.

1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY

This research work is based on the experiment conducted in the laboratory of sand and gravel of Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin to determine the grade of particular size, likewise the strength. The scope is as follows:

1. To perform sieve analysis test on fine and coarse aggregate.

2. The production of concrete cube

3. The compressive strength test.

1.5 METHODOLOGY

The method used in this project is the selection of different size of aggregate and the uses of those aggregate in the production of concrete according to British standard (B.S. 8110). The production of concrete cube is carried out and curing also takes place after the production in order to achieve maximum strength. There is production for 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days and compressive strength machine is use for the crushing which gives the actual strength for each production per day. The essence of this laboratory test is to determine the suitability of sand and gravel of different size particles in concrete production use in building construction works.  

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INVESTIGATION INTO THE SUITABILITY OF SAND AND GRAVEL MATERIALS COMMONLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION



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