BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN NIGERIA


BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

In many small to medium sized communities, convert and on site septic thank / absorption trench systems do not provide adequate waste water treatments and hence cause significant environmental damage to the local water resource. Consequently, many such communities look to alternative forms wastewater treatment and collection for communities. Under the bio-water concept, wastewater and putrescence waste from each household in the community undergoes enhances primary treatment on site using a biolytic filter. The filtrate can there be reused locally, with the balance pump via a small box communed reticulation network to a central  treatment / storage facility.  

TABLE OF CONTENT

Contents     page

Title Page … … … … … … … … … … i

Certification … … … … … … … … … … ii

Dedication … … … … … … … … … … iii

Acknowledgement … … … … … … … … … iv

Abstract … … … … … … … … … … v

Table of Content … … … … … … … … … vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction … … … … … … … … 1

1. Aim of Project Study … … … … … … … 2

2. Objective of the Study … … … … … … … 3

3. Purpose of the Study … … … … … … … 3

4. Scope of Study … … … … … … … … 4

5. Plan of Study … … … … … … … … 4

6. Significance of the Study … … … … … … … 4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review… … … … … … … 5

1. Source of Water … … … … … … … … 6

1. Atmospheric Water … … … … … … … 7

2. Surface Water … … … … … … … … 7

3. Underground Water … … … … … … … 7

4. Artificial Water … … … … … … … … 7

2. Types of Waste Water … … … … … … … 8

1. Sanitary Sewage … … … … … … … … 8

2. Commercial Waste … … … … … … … … 8

3. Surface Run-off … … … … … … … … 9

4. Treated Sewage … … … … … … … … 9

5. Untreated Sewage … … … … … … … … 9

3. Biological Waste Water Treatment … … … … … 9

4. The Basics … … … … … … … … … 9

5. Selection Criteria … … … … … … … … 10

6. Treatment Categories … … … … … … … 12

1. Separation of Solids … … … … … … … 12

2. Screening … … … … … … … … … 12

3. Sedimentation … … … … … … … … 12

4. Flotation … … … … … … … … … 13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY… … … … … … 14

1. Materials and Method … … … … … … … 14

2. Physical Waste Water Treatment … … … … … 15

1. Physical Method … … … … … … … … 15

2. Aeration … … … … … … … … … 15

3. Filtration … … … … … … … … … 16

3. Chemical Waste Water Treatment … … … … … 16

1. Chemical Treatment … … … … … … … 16

1. Chlorination … … … … … … … … 16

2. Ozonation … … … … … … … … … 16

3. Neutralization … … … … … … … … 16

4. Coagulation … … … … … … … … … 16

4. Biological Treatment … … … … … … … 17

1. Biologic Treatment Method … … … … … … 17

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION… … … … … … 19

1. Results of Physio-Chemical Analysis … … … … … 19

2. Bateriological Examination … … … … … … 20

3. General Comment … … … … … … … … 21

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION … … … 22

1. Conclusion … … … … … … … … … 22

2. Recommendation … … … … … … … … 22

REFERENCE … … … … … … … … … 23

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

Water is a universal liquid that sustains being and all other lives. In fact that body is known to contain a lot of water and covers about 60% of the total land surface. The first form of life was believed to have started from water millions of year ago and up till now no living things can exist without it. Water is one of the most common solvents and exists in gaseous, liquid and solid state (Ababio 1990).

Hence, there are so many ways in which water is useful to human being. It can be used for drinking purpose, which is the most important use of water, it may be used for domestic purpose such as bathing, washing, cleaning etc. in manufacturing industries and in Agriculture etc.

Therefore, the important of water cannot be overemphasized in the community (Encyclopedia Britain 1970).

Different type of natural water exist on earth’s surface which include; rain water, spring water, river, lake water and sea water etc. rain water is considered as the purest from all natural water because it is formal as a result of the condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere.

Spring water on the other hand emerges at the base of sloppy ground where the surface elevation is below the water table, in an aquifer from where the water can escape (Fawole 1980).

However, water that contains few microbes may be considered good as longs as pathogen and inquiries chemicals are absent. Nevertheless the quality of water is determined by the types and quality of microbes present in it. Some natural water could contain some microbes and still be good for use. Generally contaminants that can be found in water include, microorganisms such as bacterial, algae, protozoams, fungi, etc.

Some water are used in household, factories etc which are considered as waste water. Biologically these waste water can be treated and be used again. Biological waste water treatment is the common method used to treat water before it is discharge to the communities.

Biological waste water treatment system consist of series of reaction vessels which are designed with the optimum mixing energy, retention time, and nutrient addition to provide an optimum environment for biological avidity resulting in removal of nitrates heavy metals, ammonia, and biochemically oxidizable organic mixture as the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

More so, Thomas E, Schultz (us filter) explain that the use of bacteria and other microorganism to remove contaminants by assimilating them has long been a mainstay of waste in the chemical process industries (CPI) because they are effective and widely used. When considering biological waste water treatment for a particular application. Thomas says, it is important to understand the source of the waste water generated, typical waste water composition discharge requirement events and practices withing a facility that can affect the quality and quantity of the waste water and pretreatment ramification consideration of these factor will allow you to maximize the benefit of your plant gains from effective biological treatment.

1.1 AIM

This main aim if this study it to carry out research on how biological waste water will be treated in order to meet standard for reused by final consumer and with a view of acquiring and developing better understand of biological waste water treatment.

1.1.1 OBJECTIVES

This study embark on the following:

1. How biological waste water can be treated for reused.

2. To determined the appropriate practical and method that can be used in treatment of biological waste water

3. To save large amount of water

4. To enumerate different methods that are appropriate in treating of water.

5. To use appropriate equipment to get clean water for consumers.

1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY.

Generally, this study aims at all waste water found in Nigeria and prefering remedies by which it can be treated biologically. Actually this will deliver home what is really meant by waste water treatment.

The study is also embark water that contains a few microbes which may be injurious chemicals are absent. It also expanciate how waste water is being generated i.e water from household, factories e t c which are considered as waste water and proffering a method in which can be treated. The aim of these study is to treat waste water which is biological waste water treatment

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY

With full details gotten from various test, it shows that water is needed to be treated before used and these treatment is traceable to be combination of factors which are: fund, self interest, seasons, conditions etc 

Thus, this study covers a precise story of improving the rate at which water is treated to full cleanness before usage.

1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

These type of study is significantly important because this serve main method to analysis biological waste water treatment or important of biological waste treatment.

1.5  PLAN OF STUDY

This study comprises of five chapters chapter one shows the general background to the study and full introduction while chapter two deals with literature review, chapter there contain research methodology which is use to present and analyse the method and equipment that are used for the practical, chapter four shows the details of the practical of the result gotten from the practical done in chapter three and the final chapter (five) consist of the summary, conclusion, recommendation and references of the study.

.

BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN NIGERIA



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