EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER
This research paper examines the effects of solid wastes, quality, and their control on groundwater pollution in Ikirun (Maboreje and Okeafo areas) Osun state Nigeria. The study was born out of an unregulated manner in which both domestic and industrial wastes are deposited on the streets, river courses, buried, burnt, and discarded in refuse heaps. Solid waste commonly generated in Ikirun includes papers and polyethylene, tin and metals, ashes and dust, texture and rags, aluminum, and other minerals. The analysis of physical, chemical, and biological of raw water at ten different locations in Ikirun close to dumping areas shows these wastes produce leachates and gases when they are decomposed and are washed by percolating and infiltrating rainwater into the groundwater. However, most of the water parameters tested to fall within World Health Organisation (W.H.O) recommendations while few are not. In spite of this, recommendations are made to remedy the situations which include encouraging analysis of raw water, enlightenment campaign, groundwater exploration in Ikirun should be intensified and the principle of resource management should be adhered to.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY 1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF WASTES 2.2 SOURCES OF SOLD WASTES 2.3 COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WASTES 2.4 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES 2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARD OF SOLID WASTES 2.6 WATER POLLUTION FROM SOLID WASTES 2.7 SOURCES OF WATER 2.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER 2.9 EFFECT OF RAIN WATER ON UNDER GROUND WATER 2.10 COLOR DETERMINATIONS 2.11 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID WASTES (TSS) TOTAL DISSOIVED SOLID WASTES (TDS) 2.12 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID WASTES (TDS) 2.13 DISSOIVED OXYGEN (DO) 2.14 TYPE OF WASTES AND ITS CONSTITUENTS 2.15 SOLID WASTES EFFECT AND CONTROL ON UNDERGROUD WATER. 2.16 TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WASTES
CHAPTER THREE 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 PHYSICAL OBSERVATION OF THE STUDY AREAS 3.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 METHOD OF LABORATORY TESTS ON PH, TEMPERATURE, CONDUCTIVITY, ALKALINITY, TOTAL HARDNESS, CHLORINE, AND BACTERIOLOGICAL TEST OF THE WATER SAMPLE. 4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 SUMMARY 5.1 CONCLUSION 5.2 RECOMMENDATION 5.3 APPENDICES 5.4 REFERENCES
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 This chapter introduces what solid wastes are all about including their quality and effects on underground water. Solid wastes commonly known as trashes or garbages are wastes consisting of everyday items we consume and discard. It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial resources. While underground water is the water found beneath the soil. Underground water occurs as a result of rainfall entering the soil surface. It may also occur as a result of percolation from surface water into the soil. When rain falls to the ground, the water does stop, some flow along the surface to the streams or lakes, while some are used by plants, some evaporate and return to the atmosphere while some sink into the ground. When pouring a glass of water into a pile of sand, it is obvious that the water will move into space between particles of sand. Scientifically, groundwater is found in the cracks and spaces in the soil, sand, and rock. It moves slowly through layers of soil, sand, and rock called aquifers. Aquifers typically consist of gravel, sand, stone, or fractured rock, like limestone. These particles are permeable because the large connected spaces that allow water to flow through the speed at which groundwater flows depends on the size of spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are connected. The area where water full aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone). The top of the zone is called the water table. The water table may be located either a meter below the ground surface or it consists of thirty meters down. Groundwater can be found almost everywhere. The water table may be deep or shallow and may rise or fall depending on many factors. Heavy rains or melting snow can cause the water table to rise or heavy pumping groundwater supplies may cause the water table to fall. Water in aquifers is brought to the surface naturally through spring can or be discharged into lakes or streams. Groundwater can also be extracted well drilled into aquifers. A well is a pipe in the ground that fuses with groundwater. The water can be brought to the surface by a pump. Some wells called artesian wells, do not need a pump because of natural pressure that forces water up and out of the well. Groundwater supplies are replenished or recharged by rain and snowmelt. In some areas of the world, people face serious shortages of water because groundwater is used faster than it is naturally replenished or recharged. If the ground becomes polluted, it will no longer be safe to drink. Groundwater is used for drinking water by more than 50% of the people. In the United States including almost everyone who lives in rural areas, it is important for all of us to learn how to protect our groundwater because of its importance as a source of water for drinking and irrigation. In other areas groundwater is polluted by human activities, in areas where material above the aquifer is permeable, pollutants can be easily sunk into the groundwater. Ground-water can be polluted by landfills, septic tanks, leaking underground gas tanks, and from overuse of residual single and multi-dwellings, food wastes, wood, papers, cardboards, textile leather, yard wastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes(e.g bulky items, tires) and household are hazardous wastes. Industrial light and heavy manufacturing, fabrications, power and chemicals and plants, housekeeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials, ashes are specials wastes. In other words wastes from hotels, restaurants, markets, office building( paper, cardboard, food, plastic, glass metals), institutional schools, hospitals, prisons, government centers, heavy and light manufacturing refineries, chemical plant, mineral extraction, industrial scrap materials, municipal services, street cleaning, land scraping, parks bleaching, recreational areas, water and wastes water management plant contribute immensely to the contamination of groundwater and they are the most common sources of wastes generation. It is noted that solid wastes have a great effect on the quality of underground water as a result of percolation, infiltration, leachate, and dis-integration of wastes material by the action of rainfall into the ground.
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY The problem of solid wastes and its effect on the quality of underground water is now the focus of attention all over the world. The problem of waste generation in the country in the recent past had been quite tremendous, necessitating the need for this project. In fact, the presence of wastes scattered all over cities and towns and even in our institutions of higher learning is a threat to health and embarrassment to the pleasant standard expected of these areas. The menace of solid waste generation is most prominent in developed and industrialized countries; this is because the complexity of generated waste is directly proportional to development in science and technology. Construction and operation of landfilling material, recovery system and incineration systems have become very costly. It is noteworthy that the urban populace generates more wastes than the rural areas. This is because of the various forms of commercial and industrial activities going on in cities and which have brought an increase in the volume and diversity of waste generated daily in the country. These have some great effects on underground water consumption (borehole and well). It is therefore believed that in consumption of underground water such as borehole and well water, certain tests are needed to be carried out before consumption in regulation with the principles of the World Health Organization. These tests are:
PH Test Total cauliform test Test for nitrate [No3-N] Aerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria.
These tests are the most important tests carried out to know the physical, chemical, and biological effects of solid wastes on underground water before they could be suitable for consumption. In addition, wastes are such items that people are required to discard. It can be defined as unavoidable material resulting from an activity that has no immediate economic demand and must be disposed of Items such as household rubbish, sewage sludge, waste from manufacturing can give to a large variety of different wastes from different sources. Wastes are generated every day in all parts of the world (Oluwande 1973). This mainly made up of waste coming from household, commercial activities ( e.g shops, restaurants, hospitals), industry (e.g pharmaceutical companies, clothes manufacturers e.t.c), agriculture (slurry) construction and demolition projects, mining, and quarrying activities, and from the generation of energy. With such vast quantities of wastes being produced, It is of vital importance that it is managed in such a way that does not cause any harm to either human health or to the environment. 1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY (i) To know the physical, chemical, and biological effects of solid wastes on underground water and determine the number of wastes within the study areas. (ii) To determine whether water pollutions have a dangerous effect on the people and animals in the areas of the study environment. 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1. To prevent all individuals, relevant organizations, researchers from drinking underground water that is very closed to dumping areas in order to avoid deadly diseases. 2. To inform the people on the hazard and result of wastes on their health from drinking underground water especially those that are very close to the dumping areas in other to prevent untimely death. 3. To educate people on the negative effects of water pollution on health 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In Osun State, South West of Nigeria with thirty local governments, only one town was explored by the researcher. The town is Ikirun in Ifelodun local government. Ikirun is centrally located in Osun northeast division of Osun State with latitude 7 degrees, 50 feet north of equator and longitude 4 degrees, 40 feet east of Greenwich meridian. It is bounded on the north by Anisa town in Odo-Oti local government area, on the south by Osogbo the Osun State capital to the east by Iragbiji town in Boripe local government, and to the West by Eko-Ende town also in Ifelodun local government. In this town, different wells were examined both in the dry season and rainy season especially those that are very close to the dumping areas. The difficulty encountered during the course of this project was my inabilities to perform some tests which are very expensive. This was due to the fact that it required initial funds to carry them out. Examples of such tests are aerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria tests e.t.c.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are some certain tests which should be performed, these are, Aerobic Test, Pathogen Screen Test, etc. But due to the time factor, money, and some facilities which are needed but are not present at hand, these tests could not be carried by the researcher.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. PERCOLATION: Percolation can be defined as the slow passage of a liquid through a filtrating medium. It is also known as the process of water seepage through the soil. 2. INFILTRATION: The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil 3. LEACHATE: It is any liquid that in passing through matter, extracts, solutes, suspended solids, or other components, of the material through which it has passed. 4. HAZARDOUS WASTES: These are wastes that pose substantial or potential threats to public health or environments 5. AQUIFERS: These are underground layers of porous rocks or sand that allow the movement of water between layers of non-porous rocks (sandstone, gravel, or fractured limestone or granite). 6. WASTE PREVENTION: It is the method of eliminating waste at the source and reducing the demand for natural or origin resources. 7. WASTE RE-USE: It is the method of using a waste product from one process as a raw material to form another. 8. WASTE RECYCLES: This is the method of breaking down the waste items into raw material.