INVESTIGATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CORNSTALK ASH BLENDED CEMENT


INVESTIGATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CORNSTALK ASH BLENDED CEMENT  

ABSTRACT

Analysis of investigation on the characteristics of cornstalk blended ash cement was carried out based on the interest of coming out with a good pozzolanic material with all required cement properties. Hence,the supposed competitive demand relationship between cement products in construction works has been majorly wined by cement and this makes people to depend mostly on it despite the increase in price and some with inadequate properties.

In an attempt to reuse and convert agro wastes into useful materials for the construction industry, this research considered the application of corn stalk ash (CSA) as partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the production of concrete cubes.

The study investigated the oxide composition of CSA to ascertain its suitability as a pozzolanic material. Some properties of cement with CSA as a replacement for OPC were examined. 

The results showed that CSA is not a good pozzolana as it does not satisfy the requirement for use as a pozzolana according to ASTM C618(2005). The compressive

strength of the specimens with replacement levels at 10% and 20% cured for periods of 7–28 days was lower at early curing time but improved significantly at later age.10% replacement level did not show increased strength compared to 20% CSA at 28 days curing period. Density decreased withincreasing ash content, water absorption rate increased with increased CSA contents, while abrasionresistance increased with increasing amount of CSA substitutions. The test results revealed that

CSA concrete cubes can attain higher strength than the conventional ones at longer curing periods,due to its pozzolanic reactions.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement 

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

i. Background to the study

ii. Problem statement

iii. Aim of the study

iv. Objectives of the study

v. Justification

vi. Scope

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0.Introduction

2.1.Corn and Corn Cultivation

2.2.Corn and Corn Stalk

2.3.Chemical Composition of Corn Stalk

2.4.Corn Stalk Ash blended Cement and Construction Industry

2.5.Brief description of Cement

2.6.Chemical Properties of Cement

2.7.Lafarge Cement

2.8.The Need for Corn Stalk Ash Blended Cement

2.9.Empirical Study

CHAPTER THREE :METHODOLOGY

3.1.Experiment Site

3.2.Compressive Strength

3.3.Chemical Analysis

3.4.Physical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE:CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0.Conclusion

5.1.Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

Appendix A: Getting Corn Stalk from Field

AppendixB: Corn Stalk blended Ash

AppendixC: Crushing Machine

AppendixD: Concrete Cubes after 28days Curing

AppendixE: Alpan Machine

AppendixF: Surface Area Machine

AppendixG: Burning of Corn Stalk into Ash

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Chemical Composition of Cornstalk Ash

Table 4.2 Results for Surface Area, Residue and Expansion 

Table 4.3 Compressive Strength for Ordinary Cement

Table 4.4 Compressive Strength of Cornstalk Blended Ash-10

Table 4.5         Compressive Strength of Cornstalk Blended Ash-20

Table 4.6 Flexural Strength of Ordinary Cement, 10 and 20 Blended Cement

Table 4.7 Compressive Strength of Ordinary Cement, 10 and 20 Blended Cement

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Properties of Cement

Figure 3.1: Corn plant

Figure 3.2: Specimen of Cornstalk

Figure 3.3: Cornstalk Ash

Figure 4.1: Flexural Strength Graph of Ordinary Cement

Figure 4.2: Compressive Strength Graph of Cornstalk Blended Ash 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

vii. Background to the study

Various blends of cement utilized in construction are portrayed by their physical properties. Some key parameters control the nature and quality of cement. The physical properties of good cement are based on; Fineness of cement, Soundness, Consistency, Strength, Setting  time, Heat of hydration, Loss of ignition, Bulk density, Specific gravity (Relative density). In addition, cement has a very high cost in many developing countries like Nigeria and its usage cannot be sustained. The need for moderate structure materials in giving satisfactory lodging to people of the world has turned into the real worry of researchers.The expense of traditional structure materials keep on expanding as most of the populace keeps on falling beneath the destitution line. This consequently requires the look for elective neighborhood materials as aggregate or fractional swap for concrete (Adesanya and Raheem, 2009; Akinwumi and Aidomojie, 2015; Raheem &Adedokun 2017). The research has led to the discovery of the potentials of using industrial by-products and agricultural wastes as replacement of some cement materials.Agricultural and industrial wastes possess pozzolanic properties used in cement replacement.The  application  of  agro  and  industrial  wastes  in  the  production  of  cement  is  an environmentally friendly  method  of disposal  of large  amounts  of substances that  would have constituted pollution to land, water and air. The agricultural and industrial wastes that possessed pozzolanic characteristics and which had been studied  and applied  as partial  replacements for cement are Rice husk ash [6-9], Corn cob ash [4, 10-12], Waste burnt clay [13-14], Hair fibre [15] and Saw dust ash [16-17]. The saw dust ash (SDA) which has been proven to be a pozzolanic material was used as a partial substitution for OPC in this study. Many researchers have argued that concrete is one of the major materials used for radiation protection in facilities. The radiation protection feature of concrete depends on its components. Cement production is one of the important sources of carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. CO2,which is a greenhouse gas, contributes about 65% of global warming (Vijayakumar, 2013; Raheem &Adedokun 2017). The high energy demand as well as the emission of carbon dioxide, which caused global warming and depletion of limestone deposits are the major challenges associated with cement production.

In the recent years, there is great interest in replacing a long time used materials in concrete structure by new materials to produce cheaper, harder and durable concrete.Abdelrahman& El-Awney (2015).The raw materials for cement production are limestone (calcium), sand or clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum) and iron ore, and may include shells, chalk, marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, slate. Chemical analysis of cement raw materials provides insight into the chemical properties of cement.

Corn, also known as maize, is one of the most successful cereal grasses of all time. It has been under human cultivation for over 10,000 years and has spread itself into every niche of commercial agriculture (Adesanya, & Raheem (2009). Maize crop started as a subsistence crop in Nigeria and has gradually risen to a commercial crop on which many agro-based industries depend on as raw materials (Iken, and Amusa, 2014).Corn stalk is a waste product obtained from maize plant, which is the major cereal crop produced in sub-Saharan Africa.Therefore, this research investigated the use of Corn stalk as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement in the production of concrete cubes. It includes the determination of the oxide,composition of the CSA, evaluation of the compressive strength, density, water absorption,crushing strength of the concrete and the abrasive resistance of the concrete cubes.

viii. Problem statement

A major challenge in the constructions in the world today is access to good and quality cements with right proportions of its physical properties.The high price of good cement with balance property ratio has made it difficult for people to acquire it, hereby leading to usage of poor quality cement which later affect the construction.This study examined the physical properties of ordinary cements alongside blended cornstalk ash and how it improved the physical properties without unnecessary increase in the cost for effective and standard construction. 

ix. Aim of the study

The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of corn stalk blended cement as a partial replacement for ordinary portland cement.

x. Objectives of the study

The main aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of corn stalk blended cement as a partial replacement for ordinary portland cement while the objectives of the study are:

⦁ To ascertain the characterization of corn stalk ash.

⦁ To determine of the effects of corn stalk ash on physical and mechanical properties of blended cement mortar.

xi. Justification

There were several motivations for this study. Although few studies have investigated on things related to the properties of cornstalk ash and other supposed waste of agricultural materials. To the best of my knowledge, there was no definite assurance of complete adequate physical properties in ordinary cement until now.Additionally, analyzing a good access and usage for construction will provide better constructions as well as reducing the number of collapse building in the world.Addition of blended corn stalk ash has further enhanced the physical properties generating a better result for construction at a lower price. In an attempt to reuse and convert agro wastes into useful materials for the construction industry, several research had been carried out on the application of corn stalk ash (CSA) as partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement. The study investigated the characteristics of corn stalk ash blended cement and ascertain its suitability as a pozzolanic material.

xii. Scope

This study centers on the characteristics of corn stalk ash blended cement. Base on the limitation of the study, this research investigated the use of Corn stalk as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement in the production of concrete cubes. It includes the determination of the oxide, composition of the CSA, evaluation of the compressive strength, density, water absorption, crushing strength of the concrete and the abrasive resistance of the concrete cubes.

.

INVESTIGATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CORNSTALK ASH BLENDED CEMENT



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