MODELING OF GAS POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL WASTE DUMPSITE


MODELING OF GAS POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL WASTE DUMPSITE  

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric emission of trace gases such as carbon (iv) oxide (co4), carbon (II) oxide (co), methane (ch4) e.t.c. associated with animal waste are world wild problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment in such a way that millions of people will be affected especially poor people who live in precarious location or depend on land for sustenance living. And this effect was determined by modeling the effect of trace gases on the environment. 

The two (2) main approaches to this study was field work and software application. The field work was carried out on five (5) busy days in a week which was on: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday at the animal dumpsite of the study area. The field data obtained was fed into the integrated waste management (IWM) software which determined their effect on the environment. 

Compressed field result in (PPM) from table 6 shows that carbon(IV)oxide is greatest on day 3, carbon II oxide is greatest on day 1 and methane (ch4) remain unchanged 

The result from table 9 shows that the field result of carbon(iv)oxide only is greater than the simulated result, therefore carbon(IV)oxide will have effect on the global warming of this environment. It is therefore recommended that afforestation should be practice in this environment to reduce the effect of carbon(iv)oxide. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of contents v

  CHAPTER ONE 

1.0 Introduction  1

1.1 Background of study 1

1.2 Statements of the problems 2

1.3 Aim and objectives 2

1.3.1 Aim 2

1.3.2 Objectives 3

1.4 Scope of research 3

1.5 Definition of terms 3

1.5.1   Trace gas 3

1.5.2   Pollution 3

1.5.3    Animal waste 3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review 4

2.1 Carbon dioxide emission 4

2.2 Methane emission 4

2.3 Nitrous Oxide Emission 5

2.4 Non Point Pollution 5

2.5 Pollution from animal waste harms 6

2.6 Waste management practices should be improve 6 

2.7Data sources and Limit7

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology    8

3.1 Description of study area 8

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and Discussion 9

4.1 Data Obtained from the field 9

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 18

5.1 Conclusion 18

5.2 Recommendation 18  

    References     19LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Data Obtained for day 1 9

Table 2: Data Obtained for day 2 10

Table 3: Data Obtained for day 3 11

Table 4: Data Obtained for day 4 12

Table 5: Data Obtained for day 5 13

Table 6: Compress Field Value Results In ppm 14

Table 7: Compress field value results in tons 14

Table 8: Output of IWM tools 15

Table 9: Comparism of output 17

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Atmospheric emission of methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment.

CH4 are important green house gases that are produced anthropogenic ally but mainly by plant, animal waste and from natural geothermal source. Other green house gases include CO2, NH3.     

‘Greenhouse’ gases are gases that have a molecular structure such that they obstruct the radiation of heat from the earth, thus acting like the glass or membrane over a greenhouse. The gases that are most effective at absorbing this radiated heat are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons and sculpture hexafluoride.

The above ‘greenhouse’ gases have differing abilities to absorb the heat radiated from the earth and are assigned factors (their ‘global warning potential’) based on their absorbing ability relative to that of carbon dioxide. The factors depend on the lifetime over which the effect of the gases is assessed. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere may initially have a large effect but over a longer period the effect will be much less important.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY 

Waste products are valuable resources as fertilizer and suitable to be applied to crops and pastures. However. When concentrated into relatively small geographical area or applied in excessive amounts, waste can have detrimental environmental effects. This can results in enhanced CO2, CH4 and NS0 emission to the atmosphere influencing global warming and destruction of the ozone layer (mosier, 1998). These gases have long atmospheric lifetimes, are consequently fairly well mixed and therefore of global as well as local or regional importance. They represent a most serious threat to global climate in terms of greenhouse effect and their overall radioactive forcing from pre industrial time to date were estimated as 1.85,0.15 and 0.1.2Wm-2 respectively. Anthropogenic sources account for 70% of the total annual release of CH4, 16% of which coming from production of waste (IPCC, 1994). Soil microbial processes accesses account for 65% of the total N2) source strength (5 to 5 TG year-1). These researches measured the emission of NH3 using ToxiREA pro and modeling to estimate emission by Gabi 6 tools. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Scientist agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would led to significant climate and whether changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of season. 

I. Rising temperature would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies if fresh wash water as flooding occurs along coastlines world and salt water reaches inland.

II. Many of the world endangered species would become extinct as raise in temperature would change their habitat.

III. Millions of people also will be affected especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on land for sustenance living. 

IV. Certain vector bam diseases carried by animals or insects such as malaria would become wide spread as warmer conditions expand their range.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

1.3.1 AIM 

The aim of the project is to model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite. 

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES:

i. Pollution locator (animal waste)

ii. To quantity emission rate of trace gases from animal waste dump site in Ilorin

iii. To understand better trace gases emission level from pollution and its effect on global warning 

iv. To  model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite

1.4 SCOPE OF RESEARCH:

I. To locate animal waste dumpsite in Ilorin

II. To detect and monitor trace gases from located dumpsite using Toxireapro gas monitor 

III. To analyze the effect of trace gases from animal dumpsite to Ilorin environment

IV. And to model the effect of trace gases on the environment

1.5 DEFINATION OF TERMS 

1.5.1 TRACE GAS: A trace gas is a gas which makes up less 1% by volume of the Earth’s atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%). The most abundant trace gas at 0.934% is argon. Water vapor also occurs in the atmosphere with highly variable abundance

1.5.2 POLLUTION: This is the process of making air, water soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use.

1.5.3 ANIMAL WASTE: Is a material composed of excreta with or without animal dung, collected from poultry and other animals except human.

.

MODELING OF GAS POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL WASTE DUMPSITE



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