STAFF MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic)
This is a proposal on the topic: Staff Motivation and productivity in an organization (A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin).
The work is a requirement for the award of National Diploma (ND) in Business Administration.
In this project, the researcher would comment on the importance of motivation and compensation in an organization especially for the public sector.
The researcher would visit Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, for more findings on the project and for the collection of necessary information to be used.
Chapter one (1) of this project shows the Introduction of the study, Significance of the study, Scope and Limitations of the Study and the Definition of Key Terms.
Chapter Two (2) of this project contains the Literature Review, Motivation Theories, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need Theories, Two factors Theory, Theory ‘X’ and ‘Y’ Douglas Mc Gregor and Motivation factors.
The Chapter Three (3) shows the Research Methodology sources of data and Information, method of Data Collection/Analysis, Sample and sampling techniques and the Historical Background of the Case Study.
Chapter Four (4) of this projects shows the Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation, Results of the Findings.
The Chapter Five (5) focuses of the summary of the Findings, Conclusion and recommendations.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content vii-ix
1.0 Background of the Study 1-2
1.1 Introduction 2-4
1.2 Statement of the Problems 4-7
1.3 Objective of the Study 7-8
1.4 Significance of the Study 8-9
1.5 Plan of the Study 9-12
1.6 Historical Background of the case Study: History of Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. 13-17
1.7 Definition of Key Terms 18-19
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Literature Review 20-21
2.1 Motivation Theories 22-25
2.2 Maslow’s Need: Hierarchy Theories 26
2.3 Two Factors Theory 27-28
2.4 Theories ‘X’ and ‘Y’ DOUGLAS M.C Gregory’s 1960 28-29
2.5 Motivation Factors 30-38
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Methodology 39
3.1 Sources of Data and Information 40
3.2 Method of Data Collection 41
3.3 Research Problems 42-44
3.4 Project Questionnaires 45-47
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 Data Analysis 48
4.1 Data Presentation 49-57
4.2 Motivation Techniques Used By Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin 58-61
4.3 How Motivation Helps Productivity In Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. 61-64
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Summary of Findings 65-67
5.1 Conclusion 67-68
5.2 Recommendations 68-69
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation can be defined as an internal psychological process whose presence or absence in inferred from observed performances. Motivation can also be defined as an inner urge that gears people to perform.
People differ not only in their ability to do, but also in their love to do, this love is called “motivation”.
Motivation is an internal driving force which results in persistent behaviour directed towards a particular goal.
PUGH (1991; 53) asserted that motivation is a perennial organization problem, which changes from generation to generation as economic conditions and social valued changes. He then defined it as a decision making process through which the individual chooses desired outcome and set in motion the behavior appropriate to acquiring them.
CORRIFIN (1992; 127) defined it as a set of forces that cause people to behave in a particular way, according to him, motivation, ability and environment determines performance. It is an emerging force that induces or compels and maintains.
NWACHUKWU (1981), motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of derived desires, needs and wishes, and so on. It is the act of influencing and stimulating individuals to work. It is a process which governs the choices made by persons among various forms of voluntary actions.
Motivation is a management tool; management is an existing and dynamic discipline which has a special appeal to people who aim at getting things done in an effective and efficient way, the art of defining management is however not easy.
Management can be viewed from different perspective of man’s activities in his effort to achieve the stated objectives of an organization effectively and efficiently while some people has the terms that help management to operate, control, and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently.
Motivation is a process and a manner in which the objectives of an organization are achieved through the combinations and co-ordination of the available resources which are motivation of work in-order to increase the level of productivity.
However, for implementation to work out effectively, there are some management skills needed by managers which will assist in carrying out his/her duties in an organization effectively.
Robert Katz classified skills as a basis of works to help managers to work effectively in an organization.
In his book called “managerial techniques and skills” (1862) page 63:
1. Technical skills: This is the ability of a manager to use tools and procedures, and techniques in a specialized field.
2. Human skills: This is a mental ability that requires understanding and motivates people to achieve the stated goals.
3. Conceptual skills: This is also a mental ability which requires managers to co-ordinate and integrate all the interests of an organization.
Finally, this study will look into management skills, how it has helped early organizations and modern ones with its usefulness in staff motivation and it’s productivity in an organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In every organization today, there is a huge tendency that the organization will be facing problems within and outside the organization. The internal problem which may arise from the part of the productivity and how to motivate work.
Firstly, if there is a financial problem, when the organization is handicapped financially on the increase of improving its product and not being able to maintain it’s services. Their workers may not be motivated to the extents needed which will reduce staff ability and effort on productivity.
Secondly, if there is no accuracy about the time laid between the satisfaction of the lower level and emergence of a higher level needs.
Thirdly, main problems that this organization may encounter as at present in completion of the questionnaires because some of these staffs were very busy as a result of change of management.
However, political and economical problem currently facing the country makes it difficult for the organization to set as much as possible motivation system. If the job environment and job itself is not enriched by any means, then the workers will not be motivated. Which may also affect the level of productivity and effort of worker will be reduced.
Also, if in any motivation system, there is no improvement in any form, problems will occur if there is no dynamic improvement in procedure and the guideline of work and management is static, then the workers will not be motivated.
Any organization that does not give records or account for work that has been alone in every work place, this will also discourage the workers and there will be a problem in the system and will not move workers to add effort because the effort is not accounted for, which means without accounting for work done, performance appraisal will not be encouraged.
Finally, if there is no career development mode for workers (staffs). The organization will be a garbage in and garbage out system. Organisations should therefore set career development arena for staffs.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective and the purpose of the study is to find out the impact of the staff motivation and productivities in an organization. The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. Significance of staff motivation in Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
2. To cross check the motivation made and techniques used on yearly basis.
3. Motivation will be used to check and know the level of worker’s ability and how to pool his/her effort forward in work.
4. The planning procedure will be checked on how to improve workers/staff ability on productivity.
5. To highlight the connection between motivation and efficiently.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Motivation is the essence and effective management. It is the focal point of any management procedure to compensate work on their ability.
However, motivation is simplified as the life blood of any organization, the ability to transmit measure of work ability and to react to them in an organization.
This project will throw light on the issues that affect motivation in Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. Kwara State Polytechnic is taken as the case study.
The study will look at the different motivation technique used in Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research work is mainly to lay emphasis on the staff motivation and productivity in an organization.
A close look will be made into Kwara State Polytechnic’s motivation system, the research work comprise of the relevant roles and importance of motivation in an organization. This leads us to know how the management motivates her staffs and how they react to such motivation.
Discussing the motivation system will help to check and ensure that employee efforts are well compensated.
1.5 THE PLAN OF THE STUDY
The plan of the study is to motivate staffs in the organization. The case study of which is Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. Staffs in an organization can be motivated in different ways, motivation of staff is designed and introduced in order to maintain good organizational name and integrity, and to increase production scale and good product quality in cases of production companies and firms. In an Organization like Kwara State Polytechnic, staffs with authentic dedication with high level effectiveness and efficiency will earn the institution’s good name. The following are ways of motivating staff in an organization:
(b) Provision of souvenirs
(c) Salary increment
(d) Provision of welfare services.
1. INTRODUCTION OF SEMINARS
Seminar is a gathering for training people. It is often introduced to teach staffs:
(a) Good inter-personal relationship with students and staffs (both superior and subordinates).
(b) Tenet of operational excellence.
(c) Teaching aids and guidelines to ensure effective assimilation for students.
All these are introduced to motivate staff in an educational institution in order to meet the global requirement.
2. PROVISION OF SOUVENIR
Souvenir can be regarded as a thing that is kept as a reminder of a person, place or an event. This is also a thing that is kept as a momentum or remembrance. Provision of souvenirs, includes keeping of an item or a thing for the workers/staffs in order to keep them remembering the organization.
This also includes the provision of wrist-bands, wrist-watches, T-shirts, Dairies etc in which the logo or trademark of the company or organization will be designed or printed on it.
3. SALARY INCREMENT
This can be defined as a regular increase in the amount of salary paid to workers/staffs for the job done.
This can be regarded as increment in the salary of the workers. This will motivate the workers and encourage them to put more effort on their performance of the job. This will also increase the morale creativity and productivity of the staff.
4. PROVISION OF WELFARE SERVICES.
Welfare services can be defined as a condition of having good health, comfortable living and good working conditions. The provision of services such as media services, free housing transport, sport and recreational facilities, staff esteem, club services, etc
This will secure the loyalty of workers/staffs and induce the effective performance of their job.
1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY: HISTORY OF KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN.
The Kwara state Government established Kwara State Polytechnic, as part of the launching of its four year development plan in 1971. It was based on the promulgation of the Kwara State Edict No. 4 1972 (now overtaken by Edict No. 21 of 1984 and by Edict No. 13 of 1987) as a body empowered by the institute to carry out the following important functions:
⦁ To prevent studies, training, research and development of techniques in Arts and Language.
⦁ To provide training in Applied Sciences.
⦁ To provide training in Engineering.
⦁ To provide training in management and commerce Education.
The Kwara State Polytechnic started from the Government Technical Training school which was upgraded to a college of Technology. This later metamorphosed into Kwara State Polytechnic through Edict No. 13 of 1987.
Part of the philosophy proposed for the institution was:
⦁ To combine commercial production of goods and services with training.
⦁ To train a generation of technicians and technologists whose distinctive attributes would be self-reliance and preparedness to set up their own business individually or as a corporate entity.
⦁ To accelerate economic development in Kwara State.
⦁ To provide an efficient pre-university entry through the advanced level programme (IJMB).
⦁ To convene conferences, seminars and study groups. These are expected to be achieved through serving as centre of educational excellence in producing better results by making wider use of resources.
COMMENCEMENT OF PROGRAMMES
The Polytechnic commenced full operation with the school of Basic Studies in January 1973 with the pre-university Advanced level courses in pure sciences, Social Sciences and Arts.
In 1974, new courses of institutions leading to Diploma certificates and other instructions in Scientific Technological and Managerial vocational as well as education were introduced. The school of education was later exercised to stand on its own as the college of Education, Ilorin.
At present, the Polytechnic is made up of the following institutes:
⦁ Institute of General Studies.
⦁ Institute of Basic and Applied sciences.
⦁ Institute of Vocational Studies.
⦁ Institute of Administration.
⦁ Institute of Technology.
⦁ Institute of Environmental Studies.
In addition to these are two academic centres:
⦁ Centre for postgraduate studies.
⦁ Centre for continuing Education.
With an humble beginning in 1973, today the Polytechnic offers more than fifty (50) National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND) and College Diploma courses. There are also several certificate and Post graduate courses which attract the service beneficiaries for within and outside the state.
The institutions also engage in their activity which differs from academic activities. The Kwara State Polytechnic consultancy services which provides services such as socio-economic surveys for industrial, agricultural and Government establishments and private sectors. The technical services unit also provides outstanding services to the community in the area of technical services.
Great breakthrough in innovations have been recorded in the history of Kwara State Polytechnic, these includes:
⦁ The first institution nationwide to fashion out a scheme for graduate self employment for its students.
⦁ The construction of the tricycle which intended to promote rural transformation.
⦁ The production of a community radio transmitter.
⦁ The production of complete industrial plant for processing garri (cassava flakes).
⦁ The building of traffic lights.
1.7 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
The terminology associated with this research topic must be well defined so as to allow perfect understanding of the subject matter. Among these are stated below;
MOTIVATION: This simply refers to a set of processes that moves, motivates or gears a person towards achieving a certain goal. This can also be regarded as the driving force by which we achieve our goals.
MANAGEMENT: Management can be defined as a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economic planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise for the fulfillment of a given task.
ORGANIZATION: An organization can be defined as the coming together of a group of people to form a business together in order to achieve a particular aim.
STAFF: This can be regard as all the workers employed in an organization.
PRODUCTIVITY: This can be defined as the rate at which a worker, a company or an institution produce efficiently and effectively..