It was observed that the shoot system, and development complete growth of okra were generally affected in all treatment as compared to C. Treatment with LD on 7days old plants till 7days of treatment had greater deleterious effect on the leave, shoot, root, and the whole plant, followed by DWD than all other treatments. During the end of treatment, the severity of this deleterious effect had increased remarkably to the extent that more than 25% of the leaves dropped and 30% of the complete plant died and some wither while others increased in growth .Wilting and dropping of leaves was not pronounced at noon time. The plant watered with HWD has significantly a low percentage of effect or damage followed by BWD except for the seeds with low seed power (death).


Title Page --------------------------------------------------------------------i

Approval Page----------------------------------------------------------------ii

Declaration ------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Dedication -------------------------------------------------------------------iv

Acknowledgement -----------------------------------------------------------v

Abstract ----------------------------------------------------------------------vi

Table of Content-------------------------------------------------------------vii


1.0   Intoduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1   Economic importance of okra -----------------------------------------------------------3

1.2   Background of the study----------------------------------------------------------------- 5

1.3   Aim of the study----------------------------------------------------------------------------6

1.4   Relevance of the study--------------------------------------------------------------------6


2.0   Literature review---------------------------------------------------------------------------7

2.1   Description of abelmoschusesculentus ------------------------------------------------7

2.2   Scientific classification --------------------------------------------------------------------7

2.3   Taxonomy and taxonomic hierarchy ----------------------------------------------------8

2.4   Taxonomy hierarcy ------------------------------------------------------------------------9

2.5   Taxanomy, cytology, and origin----------------------------------------------------------10

2.6   Okra varieties-------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

2.7   Domestic species---------------------------------------------------------------------------12

2.8    Potential of okra --------------------------------------------------------------------------12

2.9    Nutritional potential ---------------------------------------------------------------------13

2.9.1 Seed as potential edible oil flour source ---------------------------------------------14

2.9.2 Mucilage and its potential ----------------------------------------------------------------14

2.10 Botanical features of okra ----------------------------------------------------------------16

2.11 Nutritional content of okra ---------------------------------------------------------------18

2.12 Soil requirement ---------------------------------------------------------------------------20

2.13 Climate requirement-----------------------------------------------------------------------20

2.14 Water requirement-------------------------------------------------------------------------21

2.15 Growth and development------------------------------------------------------------------21

2.16 Pest and diseases --------------------------------------------------------------------------22

2.17 Stresses affecting okra production-------------------------------------------------------24

2.18 Uses-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25

2.19 Health benefits------------------------------------------------------------------------------25

2.20 Medicinal uses ------------------------------------------------------------------------------29

2.21 Detergents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------29

2.21.1 Major application of detergent---------------------------------------------------------30

2.21.2 Laundry detergent------------------------------------------------------------------------30

2.21.3 Dish wash detergent---------------------------------------------------------------------30

2.21.3 Hand wash detergent -------------------------------------------------------------------30

2.21.4 Body wash detergent---------------------------------------------------------------------31

2.22   Interaction between detergents and plant---------------------------------------------31

2.23   Ingredient-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------31

2.24   Nutrient--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31

2.25   Negative effect------------------------------------------------------------------------------31

2.26   Possitive effect------------------------------------------------------------------------------32

2.27   Environmental effect-----------------------------------------------------------------------32

2.28   Deadly chemicals---------------------------------------------------------------------------32

2.29   Altering condition---------------------------------------------------------------------------33

2.30   Consideration-------------------------------------------------------------------------------33

2.31   Condition necessary for growth----------------------------------------------------------34

2.32   Nutritive materials--------------------------------------------------------------------------34

2.33   Water-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34

2.34   Oxygen---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34

2.35   Optimum temperature---------------------------------------------------------------------34

2.36   Light------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35


3.0 Materials and study -------------------------------------------------------------------------36

3.1   Study Area ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

3.2   Soil Sterilization-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36

3.3   Site of Preparation --------------------------------------------------------------------------36

3.4   Source of Seed-----------------------------------------------------------------------------37

3.5   Seed treatment----------------------------------------------------------------------------37

3.6   Planting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37

3.4   Experimental Design ---------------------------------------------------------------------38


4.0   Result -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39


5.0   Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Growth -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------42

5.2   Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------42

5.3   Recommedation -----------------------------------------------------------------------42

REFERENCE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------43

APPENDIX -----------------------------------------------------------------------------



Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), is a flowering plant in the mallow family, it is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of Okra is disputed, with supporters of West African, Ethiopian and South Asia origin (NAP, 2008).

Okra is known by many local names in different parts of the world. The name okra is most often used in the United State and the Philipines, with a variant pronunciation in Caribbean English of okra. It is called Lady’s finger in England, Gumbo in the United State of America, Guino-gumbo in Spanish, guibeiro in Portuguese and Bhindi in India.  The world okra is West African in origin, probably from Igbo it is called Okuru, Layre (Fulani), Miyan-gro (Hausa). English-speakers in Bengal call it Dherosh, it is quite popular in India because of easy cultivation, conditions (NAP, 2006).

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is an economically important vegetable crop grown in the tropical and sub-tropical and warm temperate parts of the world. This crop is suitable for cultivation as a garden crop as well as on large commercial farms (Tripathi et al., 2011). The largest ten producers are Indian, Nigeria, Sudan (former). Iraq, Cote d’Ivoire, Pakistant, Egypt, Ghana, Saudi Arabia and Cameron. World okra production was 6, 876, 584MT, while Sudan (former) okra production was 256,000MT (FAOSTAT, 2010). Okra probably originated in East Africa, quite possible in Ethiopia (Doymlaz, 2005). It is a tender plant and grown nearly in all parts of the Sudan (former). It is consumed by almost all the Sudanese either as green immature pods (fried or cooked or in soup or stews) or sun dried and ground into a powder form locally known as ‘Wieka’ which is used as an ingredient in the preparation of favourable Sudanese soup (Osman, 2005). Okra ranks high amongst the economic important vegetables of the world, and warmer portions in the temperate regions (Adenipekur, et al., 2009). It has found relevance in human diets and also be fed to livestock (Farinde et al., 2007). Nigeria (Enokpa et al., 1996; Adenipekun et al., 2009). According to Schipper, (2000) it can be found in almost every market all over Africa.

Detergents are water-soluble, surface-active agents compose of a hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic or lipophilic tail group. Due to their amphiphilic character, detergent molecule aggregate in solution to form micelles. They can also align at aqueous/non aqueous interface reducing surface tension, increasing miscibility and stability emulsions.

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions (IUPAC Gold Book detergent” 2013). Detergents are used to clean various things such as clothed, hands, body and dishes. Detergents sometimes end up in the soil where plants live. These detergents usually do not have a lot of ingredients that will hurt plants. More often than not the ingredients detergents are made of organic materials. However, some kind of bleach in detergents can be deadly to plants (Tyebkhan G. 2002).

1.1 Economic Important of Okra Abelmoschus Esculentus

Okra is cultivated for its fibrous fruits or pods containing round, white seeds. The okra are harvested when immature and eaten as a vegetable. The roots and stem of okra are used for cleaning the cane juice form which our or brown sugar is prepared (Chauhan, 1972).

Its ripe seed are roasted, ground and used as a substitute for coffee in some countries. Mature fruits and stems containing crude fiber are used in paper industry. Extracts from the seeds of okra is viewed as alternative sources for edible oil. The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor and is high in unsaturated fat such as oleic acid and linoleic acid. The oil content of the seed is quite high at about 40%.

Okra is known for its high vitamin vitamins, calcium, potassium and other mineral matters which are often lacking in the diet of developing countries (IBPGR, 1999).

Okra is known for its high vitamin c, k and foliate content, further, okra as known for harnessing a superior fibre which helps with digestioin, stabilizes blood sugar and helps to control the rate at which sugar is absorbed .

Okra is said to be very useful against Genito-urinary disorders. Spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery (Nadkarni, 1927). In okra, no endogenous toxin or significant levels of anti-nutritional factors have been found till date. It is so not considered a pathogen and is not capable of causing any disease in humans, animals or plants (FAOSTAT, 2008).

The crop is used as soup thickener which may also be served with rice and other food types. The fresh fruit is a good source of vitamins, minerals and plant protein (Eke et al., 2008). Rehn and Espig (1991) stated that okra contain about 20% edible oil and protein, while its mucilage is ultilized for medical purposes. The mature stem contains crude fiber which is used on paper industries and making ropes. Okra flower can be very attractive and sometimes used in decorating the living room (Schippers, 2000). Okra seeds contain about 20% protein similar to amino acid composition of soyabean protein and 20% oil (similar in fatty acid composition to cotton seed oil) (siemonsma and Hamon, 2002) the fruits are exported by some African and Caribbean countries to Europe and America where there is a ready demand from the resident ethnic groups from tropical and sub-tropical countries including Indians, West Africa, Parkistanis and Surinamese (Adetula and Denton 2003). The immature pods are used as boiled vegetable while its dried form it used as boiled vegetable while its dried form is used as soup thickener (Owonubi and Yayock, 1981). The green pods are rich sources of vitamin, calcium, potassium and minerals (Lee et al., 2000). It is popularly grown by farmers both for home use and source of income. Most okra is eaten in cooked or proceeded form and the young fruit may be eaten raw. Akinfasoye and Nwanguma, (2005) noted that the oil in the seed could be as high as in poultry eggs and soybean. Okra production constitutes about 4.6% of the total food production in Nigeria in the year 1970-2003 (CBN, 2004). Okra is the most important fruit vegetable crop and source of calorie (4550Kcal/Kg) for human consumption. It ranks first before other vegetable crops (Babatunde et al., 2007). It is one of the most commonly grown vegetable crops in the tropics. Okra cultivation and production has been widely practiced because of its importance to the economy development and can be found in almost every market in Africa.

The economic importance of okra cannot be overemphasized okra contains carbohydrates, protein and vitamin c in large quantities (Adeboye and Oputa, 1996). In Nigeria, okra is usually boiled in water resulting in slimy soups and sauces which are relished. The fruits also served as soup thickeners (Schippers, 2000). The leaves, buds and flowers are also edible okra seed could be used to prepare vegetable curds material that can be used to prepared vegetable curds, or roasted and ground to be used as coffee additive or substitute (Farinde et al. 2001). Okra leaves are considered good cattle feed, but this is seldom compatible with primary use of the plant. Okra mucilage is suitable for medical and industrial applications. It has medically food application as a plasma replacement or blood volume expander. Industrially, okra mucilage usually used in glaring certain pipers and also useful in confectionery among other uses (Markose and Peter, 1990). Christo and Onuh (2005); Katung and Kashina (2005) documented that okra is consumed throughout Nigeria.

1.2 Background of the study

Various concentrations of detergents determine how the plant growth can be affected. Detergents containing harmful ingredients cause damage to the soil structure by raising the alkalinity of soil; consequently, the damaged soil deteriorates healthy plants. Some bleaching detergents kill good bacteria in the soil. Practically, the detergents will cause the plants to wither and possibly die since the detergents will hinder the plants ability to make food for it and absorb nutrients. The higher the concentration of the detergent will kill plants fast. Most detergents contain volatile chemical dangerous to plants. 

1.3 Aim of the study

The purpose of this experiment is because many household and all kinds of laundry or washing are put down the drain and can move into the soil. Therefore, it is to determine whether or not different type of detergents at different concentration affects the growth and health of plant.

1.4 Relevance of the study

The information gained from this experiment will alert producer to the dangerous effect of detergents on plant.

Ordinarily, producers shall avoid using detergent water for watering plants such as okra Abelmoschus esculentus because, the toxic chemical can cause the plant to wither or possibly die off.





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