THE ROLE OF PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY MICRO-ORGANISMS BASED IN THE NATURAL PRODUCTS


THE ROLE OF PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY MICRO-ORGANISMS BASED IN THE NATURAL PRODUCTS 

1.1 BACKGROUNG OF STUDY   1.1.1 Phyllantus  

This is a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. It was first identified in Central and Southern India in 18th century. It is called carry me seed, stone-breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind, (Bharatiya 1992).

There are over 300 genera with over 5,000 species in the Euphorbiaceae world wide. The Phyllantus is one of the genus that falls under this enormous family. Phyllantus has about 750-800 species, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Green medicine is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drugs, many of which have adverse side effects (Joseph and Raj, 2010). The use of medicinal plants by man for the treatment of diseases has been in practice for a very long time. Screening of compounds obtained from plants for their pharmacological activity has resulted in the isolation of innumerable therapeutic agents. 

       Over 50% of all modern chemical drugs are of natural plant product origin and is essential in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry (Burton et. al 1983).

1.1.2      Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus)

       P. amarus is an erect annual herb of not more than one and half feet tall and has small leaves and yellow flowers. It is a broad medicinal plant that has received world-wide recognition (Srividiya and Perival, 1995).

       In herbal medicine,        P. amarus has reportedly been used to treat jaundice, diabetes, otitis, diarrhea, swelling, skin ulcer, gastrointestinal disturbances and blocks DNA polymerase in the case of hepatitis B virus during reproduction, (Oluwafemi, and Debiri, 2008).

       In Nigeria, it is called “Oyomokeisoamankedem” in Efik, “Iyin Olobe” in Yoruba and “Ebebenizo” in Bini (Etta, 2008). In traditional medicine, it is used for its hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties (Adeneye et al; 2006). The plant is also used in the treatment  of stomach disorders, skin diseases and cold (Kokwaro, 1976; Iwu, 1993). It has anti-diarrhoea effect (Odetola  and Akojenu, 2000). Its anti-viral activity against hepatitis B virus has been established (Thyagarajan et al; 1988, Wang et al; 1995), anti- carcinogenic (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), anti mutagenic activities (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), antiplasmodial (Soh et al. 2009).

       Plants contain numerous constituents, some tend to possess some level of toxicity. Cases of this toxicity in plants have been reported (Santox et al; 1995, Shaw et al; 1997, Kaplowitz, 1997).   P. amarus has been classified among plants with a low potential for toxicity, with an LD50 averaging 2000mg/kg 1day (Krithika and Verma, 2009).

1.1.3      Phyllantus niruri (P. niruri)

       P. niruri is commonly called stone breaker, also known as “Chanca piedra”. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. P. niruri is similar to P. amarus. It is a wide spread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas that grows 40-70cm tall (Chukwuma, 2012).

       In Nigeria, it is called enyikwonwa and ngwu in Ibo, Oyokeso amanke edem in Efik, geeron- tsemtsaayee in Hausa, ehin olobe and yin-olobe in Yoruba (Chukwuma, 2012).

       Although P. niruri is considered a problematic weed to formers it is a valuable medicinal plant. (Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002), and holds a reputed position  in both Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. Recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers, because of its hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties. No effective specific therapy is available for viral Hepatitis but P. niruri has shown clinical efficiency in viral Hepatitis B (Paranjape, 2001).

       P. niruri is an annual plant, its stem is angular with numerous distichous, ellipticoblong leaves. Flowers are yellow and very numerous; monoecious with 1-3 staminate flowers and solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks (Caius 1986), (Agharkar 1991). Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice and whole plants are used as medicine. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine it is considered acrid, cooling, aleixipharmic and useful in thirst, bronchitis, leprosy, anemia, urinary disharge, anuria, boiliousness, asthma, for hiccups, and as a diuretic. According to Unani system of medicine, it is stomachic and good for sores and useful in Chromic dysentery. Fruits useful for tubercular ulcers, wounds, sores, scabies and ring worm (Agharkar 1991, Krishanamurty 1993). The fresh root is believed to be an excellent remedy for jaundice.

       In many parts of India, it is commonly used for the treatment of snake bite. The  active compounds phyllanthin  and hypophyllanthim, nirtetralin and phyltetralin have been isolated from leaves, (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1991). The plant is used as a fish poison. In many parts of India especially in deserts, the roots mixed with Commiphora mukul are given to camels to cure indigestion. The decoction of leaves and stem are used for dying cotton black, (Singh et al; 1996).

       P. niruri is one of the medicinal plants used to treat malaria in India and Nigeria. P. niruri has been used traditionally to treat various illnesses including renal stones, gastrointestinal disturbance, cough, hepatitis, gonoorhea, fever and malaria. It has also been reported to posses hypoglycemic activity (Hukuri, et al; 1988), angiotension converting enzyme inhibition (Ueno, et al; 1988), lipid lowering activity (Khanna, et al; 2002), anti HIV activity (Qian cutron, et al; 1996) and anti cancer activity (Giridharan, et al; 2002).

1.2  Aim and objectives

       This study is aimed at showing which of the plants above is more effective in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products present in them.

The specific objecti ves include;

a.    Determination of antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.

b.    Determination of anti fungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.

.

THE ROLE OF PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY MICRO-ORGANISMS BASED IN THE NATURAL PRODUCTS



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.