THE ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FROM MARINE TRANSPORTATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF MBO RIVER, MBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE)
There is no doubt that marine transport is considered one of the main economic development pillars in any nation. The issue of transportation and the environment is paradoxical in nature. The relationships between transports and the environment are multidimensional. The most important impacts of transport on the environment relate to climate change, air quality, noise, water quality, soil quality. biodiversity and land take, algal bloom, anoxic event,, anoxic waters, aquatic toxicology, cultural eutrophication, cyanotoxin, environmental impact of shipping, eutrophication, fish diseases and parasites, fish kill, friendly floaters, great pacific garbage patch, hypoxia, invasive species, marine debris, mercury in fish, non point source of pollution, North Atlantic garbage patch, nutrient pollution, ocean acidification, ocean deoxygenation, oil spill, particle, plastic particle water pollution, point source pollution, shutdown of thermohaline circulation, storm water, surface runoff, upwelling, urban runoff and water pollution environmental externalities, assessments, dimensions, the environment link of transport, transport and the environment, affected species, sound pollutions, ship impacts, exhaust, emission, international regulation, sewages, cleaning, solid waste, bilge water are aspects of environmental pollution from maritime transportation in Mbo and Nigeria in general reviewed to enable marine managers in the country be wary.
Key Words: Marine transport, environmental pollution, effects, affected species, regulation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - ii
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - iii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - 5
2.1 Literature Review - - - - - - - 6
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 9
3.2 Design of the Study - - - - - - 9
3.3 Materials and Methods - - - - - - 9
3.4 Population of the Study - - - - - - 10
3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - 10
3.6 Instrumentation and Data Collection - - - 10
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 11
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT, DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 12
2.2 The Findings - - - - - - - - 12
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 15
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There is no doubt that marine transport is considered one of the main economic development pillars in any country. Most of the world’s trade and exactly 75% of it is transportation by sea. That is because marine transport has many advantages compared to other means of transportation such as the huge capacity and cheap cost.
These advantages have increased the dependence of marine transport and in turn increase the revenues of hard currency. Thus, we see how marine transport can serve in improving the balance of these countries, providing jobs for unemployed and constructing cities. With the execution of marine projects such as building ports, docks or starting marine companies, these things naturally to opening vacancies for national employment and constructing the cities where the projects are executed.
The importance of marine transport in the area lies in its long coast extending that 90-95% of the community’s imports and exports are transported, through sea. Based on this fact, the community has paid great attention to this sector, by constructing modern ports, shipyards, starting marine companies and institutions and modernizing the commercial marine fleet, out of its belief in the role of marine transport in fulfilling the community’s needs. It is known that the commercial marine fleet supports the military fleet at times of peace and war (Vidal, 2009),
Based on all that, decree no. 149 was issued on 28-08-1396 AH announcing the start of the Ministry’s under secretariat for transport affairs to be responsible for supervising and organizing all transport means except that through air (Vander Laan and Taggart; 2007). This is in addition to MOT responsibilities of registering ships and marine units, making sure all the Saudi marine means fulfill the safety and security procedures and issuing safety certificates to sailing ships (Ward-Geirger et al, 2005). This sector has flourished greatly during the last few years due to its importance to national economy in general and commerce in particular, since most of the goods are transported from other countries to the community by sea (Vidal, 2007).
1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and fright, notably in urban areas. But transport activities have resulted in growing levels of motorization and congestion. As a result, the transportation sector is becoming increasing linked to environment relate to climate change, air quality, noise, water quality, soil quality, biodiversity and land take.
The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions and oil pollution. Carbon dioxide emersions from shipping is currently estimated at 4 to 5 percent of the global total, and estimated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to rise by up to 72 percent by 2020 if no action is taken (Simpson, et al, 2010). The first Intercessional Meeting of the IMO Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from ships to place in Oslo, Norway on 23-27 June, 2008. It was tasked with developing the technical basis for the reduction of mechanisms that may form part of a future IMO regime to control greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping and a draft of the actual reduction mechanisms themselves, for further consideration by IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC).
However, in Nigeria in particular peoples are not laws abiding. The inability of a government to implement and enforce law to provide a uniform national approach for addressing aquatic nuisance species from ballet water under a program administered by Coast Guard. Lack of effective monetary term to remove fouling organ sans from hail, piping, and tanks on regular basis and dispose any removed substances in accordance with local, state, and federal regulations. Shortage of trained vessel personnel in ballast Wi management and treatment procedures.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study aimed at achieving the following objectives:
i. To minimize the spread of invasive species in tertiary water ways
ii. To provide analysis of pollution control strategies in Mbo Local Government Area.
iii. To provide avenue of reducing the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from shipping.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study outlined as follows:
i. It would be a guide to all who wish to have knowledge about the study.
ii. It should serve as a reference source to all the marine transportation company.
iii. It would aid anyone wishing to continue on this research project.
Embarking on this subject of study would bring about economic uplifting and good health opportunities..