DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DURABILITY TESTING MACHINE


DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DURABILITY TESTING MACHINE  

ABSTRACT

Durability is used for quantifying the quality of briquette as the ratio of the unbroken weight to initial weight of briquette. This equally measure the durability of briquette under impact load during transportation and handling. A durability machine was developed and has dimension of 300mm×(25×25×3mm)×450mm.It was powered by electric motor of size 0.93hp.The results show that briquette formed from moringa stover has durability of 50%,63.4% and 79% from treatment T1 (100g ) , T2 ( 200g ) And T3(300g) respectively with corresponding unit density of (0.126kg/m3,0.130kg/m3 and 0.194kg/m3).Castor stover  has durability of 63.4%,73.3% and79,7%  from treatment T1 ( 100g ) , T2 (200g ) And T3(300g) respectively and unit density of 0.162kg/m3,0.167kg/m3and 0.193kg/m3).sorghum stover has durability of (73.3%,79% and 87.4%) from treatment T1(100g), T2(200g) And T3(300g) and  unit density of 0.316kg/m3,0.273kg/m3and 0.262kg/m3.the  testing duration 3min and rotational speed 40rpm. . The durability test shows that sorghum stover has the highest durability compares to moringa stover and castor stover

TABLE OF CONTENT

Tittle page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of Content vi

List of Figure vii

List of Table viii

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION     

1.1  Preambles 1

1.2  Statement of the Problems 2

1.3  Durability Characteristics 2

1.4  Objectives 3

1.5  Justification 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  Definition of Durability 4

2.2  Durability measurement and equipment 4

2.2.1  Tumbler tester 4

2.2.2   Dural tester 6

2.2.3   Lingo tester 7

2.2.4   Holmen tester 8

2.2.5   Drop tester 9

2.3      Durability tester 10

2.3.1   Briquette durability test 11

2.3.2   Pellet durability test 11

2.3.3   Durability test of cubes 12

2.4      Factors affecting durability of briquette 13

2.4.1   Effects of feed constituent on durability of briquette 13

2.4.2   Effect on moisture content on durability of briquette 14

2.4.3   Effect of particle size on durability of briquette 15

2.4.4   Effect of steam conditioning/preheating on durability of briquette 15

2.4.5   Effects of binders/addictives on durability of briquette 15

CHAPTER THREEE: MATERIAL AND METHOLOGY

3.1     Material 16

3.2     Description of durability testing machine 16

3.3     Component part of the machine 16

3.3.1   Frame 16

3.3.2   Durability box 17

3.3.3   Pulley and belt 17

3.3.4   Bearing 17

3.3.5   Shaft 17

3.3.6   Key 17

3.3.7   Electric motor 18

3.4      Design consideration 18

3.4.1   Portability 18

3.4.2   Cost of production 18

3.4.3   Area/volume 18

3.5      Assembly of the construction 19

3.6      Design calculation 19

3.6.1   Determination of power transmitted shaft 19

3.6.2   Pulley design 20

3.6.3   Belt design 21

3.7    Performance evaluation 22

3.7.1  Experimental design 22

3.7.2   Experimental instrument 22

3.7.3   Experimental material 22

3.7.4   Experimental procedure 23

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1    Result 26

4.1.1 Durability and unit density of moringa ground 26

4.1.2  Durability and unit density of castor ground 27

4.1.3  Durability and unit density of sorghum ground 28

4.2    Discussion 29

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1   Conclusion 35

5.2   Recommendation 36

 Reference 37

Appendix 39

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 2.1  Holmen pellet tester 9

Figure 4.1  Durability line for moringa briquette 33

Figure 4.1.1 Unit density of moringa briquette 33

Figure 4.2  Durability line for castor briquette 35

Figure 4.2.1 Unit density of castor briquette 35

Figure 4.3  Durability line for sorghum briquette 37

Figure 4.3.1 Unit density of sorghum briquette 37

LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 Cost Analysis 25

Table 4.1.1 Durability of moringa briquette produced from different treatment of moringa ground. 26

Table 4.1.2 Durability of castor briquette produced from different treatment of castor ground. 27

Table 4.1.3 Durability of sorghum briquette produced from different treatment of sorghum ground. 28

LIST OF PLATE

Plate 1 Tumbler tester for durability testing machine 6

Plate 2 Dural tester for durability testing machine 7

Plate 3 Dural tester for durability testing machine 7

Plate 4 Durability testing machine 24

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble

Durability is the assurance or probability that an equipment, machine or material will have a relative long continuous useful life, without requiring an inordinate degree of maintenance. It is the ability to undergo permanent deformation without cracking or fracturing.  

Durability testing is performance testing equipment used to determine the characteristics of a system under various load condition over time. This testing help us to identify the stability of a transaction response times over the duration of the test.

The importance of durability is to know the shell life of an equipment or agricultural material like the other dimension of quality, it is easier to plan durability into a product design and manufacture process that it is alter the finished product. There are many ways to increase a product durability, you can increase it’s by using durable part an modules in your product. Another way to increase durability is to use redundancy redundant part can vastly increase durability, however it will increase the product weight and cost as well. And finally another way to increase durability is to design a product or equipment for the most demanding user, that way to the average user the products appear to be very durable (Tomas foster 2001).

      When designing a product and its durability, you should design with your product base, user base, manufacturing base and value base in mind. Difference product bases require different levels of durability. The difference can be seen in an equipment, vehincles e.g (the two types of ford vehicles, the crown Victoria which is a law enforcement vehicle and the focus which is an economic car both vehicles are design from the ground up to be different types of cars with the different levels of durability.  Another example is a non durable product is the common light bulb. Light bulbs are design to last about a year or less and the slightest power surge or vibration can break their filament , rendering them useless. It would be nearly impossible to increase the durability of finished light bulb. However if you design light bulb for extended life and use a quality manufacturing process, you can drastically increase the durability of the light bulb (Hall, 2001).

1.2   Statement of The Problem

Agricultural material during processing of briquette or pellet is one of the most environment problems in developing countries. The unavailability of equipment to test the durability of briquette/pellets produce from biomass cannot be over emphasized, hence there is need to develop a machine to solve these challenges.

     However the decreasing life span of  agricultural material draw the attention to the need to consider an equipment which will determine the span of a material.

1.3 Durability Characteristics

Durability characteristics are stated below:

i. Dust resistance.

ii. It will free from fire resistance.

iii. Radiation hardening.

iv. Thermal resistance.

v. Rot proofing.

vi. Rust proofing.

vii. Toughness.

viii. Water proofing.

ix. Ability to withstand wear, pressure or damage.

1.4 Objectives of the Project

The main aim of this project is to develop a machine that can be used to determine the durability of briquette produced from agricultural materials.

The objectives of this project work are to;

i. Design and fabrication of durability testing machine

   ii        carry out performance evaluation of durability testing machine

1.5    Justification

The development and performance evaluation of a durability testing machine will go a long way

i. to assist producer of briquette to determine the ability of the briquette produce to impact load

ii. to enhance the increase in production of biomass.

iii. to generate revenue from researches who engage the equipment for determination of the durability of briquette.

.

DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DURABILITY TESTING MACHINE



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.