THE ADOPTION OF FARO-44 (SIPPI) RICE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES BY FARMERS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food in many countries of Africa and other parts of the world. This is the most important staple food for about half of the human race (Imolehim and Wada, 2000). Saka and Lawal (2009) classified rice as the most important food depended upon by over 50 percent of the World population for about 80 percent of their food need. Due to the growing importance of the crop, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)(2001) estimated that annual rice production should be increased from 586 million metric tons in 2001 to meet the projected global demand of about 756 million metric tones by 2030.
Research has shown that production and processing technologies have not been able to meet the increasing demand for rice ( FAO, 2001). In the West African sub region, Nigeria has experienced a well established growing demand for rice caused by rising per capita consumption and consequently the insufficient domestic production had to be complemented with enormous import both in quantity and value at various times (Saka and Lawal, 2009).
According to United State Agency for International Development ( USAID) (2010), Nigeria’s rice sub sector is dominated by weak and insufficient producer – market linkage due to poor infrastructure and limited efficiency of distribution network which has resulted to low productivity and participation of farmers in the rice field. In order to reduce the rate of rice importation, Saka and Lawal (2009) were of the opinion that disseminating improved varieties and other modern inputs as a composite package to rice farmers is very important. Nwite ,Igwe and Wakatsuki (2008) indicated that the adoption of technologies and improved management practices should lead to substantial yield increase in rice production. Adoption of an innovation within a social system takes place through its adoption by individuals or
groups. In view of this, Negash (2007) defined adoption as the integration of an innovation into farmers’ normal farming activities over an extended period of time .More so, adoption is not a permanent behavior, this implies that an individual may decide to discontinue the use of an innovation for a variety of personal, institutional, and social reasons ,one of which might be the availability of another practice that is better in satisfying farmers’ need. However, this invariably underscores the important role technology stands to play in attaining the much needed growth in the rice sub sector. As a result of this, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) (1996) opined that new rice varieties that combine higher yield potential with excellent grain quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and input use efficiency are desperately needed to reduce the importation of foreign rice. Kebede (2001) indicated that growth in production can be gained through the use of technologies and allocative efficiencies of farmers in response to the changing techniques and production environment. Hence, adoption of technologies should lead to substantial yield increase.
USAID (2010) asserted that Nigerian market recommends the following improved varieties based on the demonstrated evidence of high yield by research institutes and the outcome of project intervention in the previous years; lowland rain-fed and irrigated rice – FARO 44 (sippi 692033) and , FARO 52 (WITA – 4). Upland varieties are FARO- 46 (ITA 150) and FARO 55 (Nerica-1).
FARO means Federal Agriculture Research Oryza. It originated from Taiwan and has national code as NGOs-9144. According to National Centre for Genetic Resources and
.Biotechnology (NCGRBC) (2009), FARO-44 was released and registered in the year 1990 and 1991.However,FARO-44 was developed by the following institutes: West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI). FARO 44, (Sippi 692033) is an interspecific hybrid between the local African rice and Taiwan rice which brings new opportunities for farmers in Nigeria. FARO 44 variety has unique characteristics such as early maturity(110 –
120 days) earlier than traditional varieties, higher yield, tolerant to some stresses, resistant to blast, long grain etc (Dontsop, Diagne, Okoruwa and Ojehomon, 2011). Onimawo, Arukwe and Nzeagwu (2010) indicated that FARO 44 and 52 are medicinal for dietary management of diabetes due to their low glycemic indices when compared to other varieties. Therefore, to increase the competitiveness of Nigerian rice producers, FARO 44 (sippi) was introduced to farmers due to its early maturity and good quality grain therein.
Statistics from the European Association of Agricultural Economics (EAAE), (2005) cited by USAID (2010) show that Nigeria is the largest rice importer in West Africa, with an average yearly import of 1.6 million metric tones since the year 2000. Total consumption stands at 4.4 million tons of milled rice while annual consumption per capital stands at 29kg and this has continued to rise at 1l% per annum; induced by income growth. Nigeria produces only about 2.8 million metric tons with a deficit of 1.6 million metric tons excluding the large quantity smuggled through the porous borders (USAID, 2010). In a bid to address these problems, research institutes (IITA and NCRI) introduced varieties that will produce higher yield in order to boost food security. Some improved high yielding rice varieties released for utilization in Nigeria are FARO 44 (Sippi), FARO 52 (WITA 4) FARO 57 (Tox 4004) FARO 51 (cisadane), FARO 35 and ITA (212) which are all lowland varieties
.The others which include ; FARO- 55 (Nerica), FARO-56 (Nerica-2)and FARO 46 (ITA 150) are all upland varieties(USAID,2010)
Once innovation had been introduced, the central objective is to encourage farmers to adopt. Suri (2006) observed that despite the efforts to increase returns, a significant number of households do not use these technologies. When a new farming practice is introduced in a community, not all people adopt at the same time, some farmers no matter what will continue their farming based entirely upon traditional agriculture (Ani ,Undiadeye
and Ogunbameru, 2008). Mbanaso (2010) opined that technologies released by research institutes are not likely to be accepted by the farmers if they are not compatible with the farmers’ conditions. These conditions are accessibility to the technologies either in the form of availability of resources to purchase needed inputs or in the form of the relevance and appropriateness of the technologies to their needs, capabilities and environmental conditions.
In recent time, it has been observed that there is a shift in variety selection among rice farmers in Anambra State. In view of the above it behooves this study to address the following questions; What are the levels of adoption of this variety? Which factors determine the adoption of FARO – 44 rice variety? What are the major sources of information used by farmers with regard to FARO-44 technologies? What are the constraints militating against FARRO-44 adoption?
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to examine the adoption of FARO -44 (Sippi) rice production and processing technologies by farmers in Anambra state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study included to:
1. ascertain major sources of information with regard to FARO-44 technologies;
2 determine the level of adoption of FARO 44 rice production technologies
3 ascertain determinants of adoption of FARO-44 rice production technologies; and
4 identify the constraints to the adoption of FARO 44 rice production technologies in Anambra State.
Significance of the study
The inextricable connection between technological change and adoption of innovation underlines the growth of agricultural productivity (Payne, Fenamdez and Daberknow, 2003). Agricultural research effort can only be successful when developed
technologies by research institutes are adopted by the end users to increase production. Therefore, an agricultural innovation that is unable to boost production on this ground shows ineffective research effort. Hence it is always important to determine the status of adoption of transferred technologies by target farmer groups. This will elicit information on the usefulness and relevance of the technologies as well as elucidate further modifications that are supposed to be made to increase adoption of the technologies.
This study, therefore, seeks to give information that would help National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) and other related research institutes, farmers and universities to promote FARO-44 technological packages on rice production that would be relevant to the needs and problems of farmers in Anambra State. The study will also furnish policy makers, development planners and workers with relevant data and insight for successful and sustainable policies and programmes for FARO – 44 production technologies. It can also provide extension workers, development institutions and policy makers with valuable information that will assists in improving efficiency of communication. This study will contribute to improving the efficiency of agricultural research, technology transfer, input provision and policy formulation .Findings of this study would also add to the existing body of knowledge. It is expected that this study will serve as a spring board to undertake detailed and comprehensive studies in other states. The study will also be significant to researchers who want to keep abreast with the current trend in the study of the adoption of FARO – 44 rice variety.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature was reviewed under the following headings:
1. Rice varieties and production ecologies in Nigeria
2. Rice production and processing constraints in Nigeria
3. Determinants, constraints and theories of adoption
4. Nigerian rice trade policy (1980s-2009)
5. Rice production and consumption trends in Nigeria
6. Rice production in Anambra state
7. Technology package for FARO-44 rice variety
8. Conceptual framework
2.1 Rice varieties and production ecologies in Nigeria
Improvement programme on Nigerian rice came into existence in the 1920s under the British Colonial administration with the establishment of the Federal Department of Agriculture at Moor Plantation Ibadan (Ukwungwu et al, 2009). In 1939, West Africa Commission recommended the establishment of rice research station to serve all the West African Countries.
On the long run, Federal Rice Station at Bida in Niger State, now the Headquarters of National Cereals Research Institute, was established in 1953 (Imolehin and Wada 2000). The purpose of the station was to develop varieties with improved grain quality, uniform shape and sizes that will have minimum breakages during milling. Thirteen (13) improved rice varieties, comprising two upland, eight shallow swamps and three deep flooded rice were released to Nigerian farmers at the interval of 1954 – 1970. Table1 shows the approved rice varieties in Nigeria between 1955 and 1970..