This study was undertaken to analyze resource productivity in ornamental plants production within Jos metropolis of Nigeria. The study covered Jos North and Jos South local government areas. The specific objectives include: identifying the effect of socio-economic factors on resource productivity, determining costs and returns, and resource productivity in ornamental plants production.

An extensive literature review was carried out to provide an in-depth knowledge of the study. The cluster sampling procedure was used because the nurseries are located in clusters. Data was collected from the nursery owners. Six respondents from each cluster and five clusters from each local government area were selected using the simple random sampling method at each sampling stage. Each of the two local government areas was administered the 30 questionnaires making a total of 60 respondents.

Results revealed that 60% of respondents were aged between 41 – 50, while 80% had some years of tertiary education. Also 60% of the respondents’ nurseries were less than a quarter of an acre. About 40% had horticulture as their primary occupation, while 40% and 20% had business and civil service respectively as their primary occupation. The ornamental plants producers made a net farm income of N351,196 per annum and a naira invested gave returns of N1.10.

The regression analysis gave positive coefficients for labour, cuttings, pesticides, water, top soil and polythenes which were significant (P<0.05). However, manure, fuel transportation and annual rent had negative coefficient. Also the regression coefficient of socio economic variables such as education, age, nursery size were positive and significant. Household size had a positive coefficient but was insignificant (P<0.05). Ornamental production experience had a negative coefficient and was insignificant

The ratio of marginal value product to marginal factor cost showed that cuttings, pesticides, water, top soil, and polythene was greater than one, while that of manure, labour, fuel, transportation and annual rent less than one. The implication is that the former inputs were used below the economic optimum while the latter were used above the economic optimum. Also, ornamental plants producers’ profit could be increased by increasing the use of labour, cuttings, pesticide, water, top soil, and polythenes while decreasing the use of fuel, manure transportation and annual rent.

The study showed that ornamental plants business is profitable. It could serve as supplemental source of income. The study showed that only 30% of ornamental plants producers belong to registered cooperatives. It is recommended that they organized themselves into cooperatives in order to access funds, inputs and information on current trends in ornamental plants production. Government on it its side should consider ornamental plants producers in the allocation of farm inputs. Also, special sites should be a assigned for ornamental plants production in new government layout. Ornamental plants production needs to be encourage and sustained as it is a profitable venture. Producers need to pay more attention towards efficient utilization of resources. Agricultural policies that favour this venture will be of great importance to ornamental plants producers.


Title Page                                            i

Certification                                        ii

Dedication                                            iii

Acknowledgement                                     iv

Table of Contents                                    vi

List of Tables                                        x

Abstract                                            xii   


1.0    Introduction                                           1

1.1    Background Information                                   1

1.2    Problem Statement                                       4

1.3    Objectives of the Study                                   6

1.4    Research Hypotheses                                       6

1.5    Justification of the Study                                   6


2.0    Literature Review                                      9

2.1    Trend in Horticultural Plants Production in Nigeria              9

2.2    Types of Ornamental Plants Produced in the Study Area        10

2.3    Contributions of Horticulture to Economies                11

2.4    Importance of Raising Horticultural Plants in Nursery        13

2.5    Starting a Commercial Nursery                        14

2.6    Production Systems and Schedules                    15

2.7    Production Methods                                16

2.8    The Concept of Efficiency in Agricultural Production        18

2.9    Sources of Inefficiency in Resource Use                    20

2.10    The Concept of Production and Production Function        20

2.11    Productive Resources                                21

2.12    The Concept of Costs and Returns                    23

2.13    Methods for the Study of Production Activities            24

2.13.1 Production Function Analysis                         24

2.13.2 Functional Funds                                25

2.14    Gross Margin and Benefit Cost Analysis                27

2.15    Review of Theoretical Framework of Productivity and Resource Use Efficiency                             28

2.16    Empirical Studies in Resource Use Productivity            30

2.17    Choice of Appropriate Econometric Technique            32


3.0 Research Methodology                                34

3.1 The Study Area                                    34

3.2 Sampling Procedure                                34

3.3 Data Collection                                    35

3.4 Data Analysis                                    35

3.5 Model Specification                                36

3.5.1    Socio-Economic Characteristics                        36

3.5.2    Farm Budgeting Technique                            36

3.5.3    Production Function Analysis                        39

3.5.4    Marginal Value Productivity                            40


4.0 Results and Discussions                            42

4.1    Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ornamental Plants

Producers                                        42

4.1.1    Gender of Respondents                            42

4.1.2    Age of Respondents                                42

4.1.3    Marital Status of Respondents                        43

4.1.4    Household Size of Respondents                        43

4.1.5    Education Status of Respondents                        44

4.1.6    Main Occupation of Respondents                        45

4.1.7    Experience in Ornamental Production                    45

4.1.8    Land Acquisition                                 46

4.1.9    Source of Funding                                46

4.1.10 Membership of Cooperatives                        47

4.1.11 Size of Nursery                                 48

4.2 Sales of Ornamental Plants                            48

4.3 Period of Sales of Ornamental Plants                    49

4.4 Profitability of Ornamental Plants Production                50

4.4.1    Costs in Ornamental Plants Production                    50

4.4.2    Revenue from Ornamental Plants Production                52

4.5    Costs and Returns Analysis                            53

4.6    Production Function Analysis                        54

4.6.1    Regression Statistics for Ornamental Plant Production        54

4.6.2    Regression Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors            58

4.7    Marginal Analysis And Resource Productivity Of

Ornamental Plants                                 59

4.8    Tests of Hypotheses                                62


5.0    Summary, Recommendations, Conclusion                66

5.1 Summary                                        66

5.2 Recommendation                                    68

5.3 Conclusion                                        69

     References                                         70


Table                                                                   Page

4.1 Distribution of Respondent Based on Gender                 42

4.2 Age Distribution of Respondents                        43

4.3 Marital Status of Respondents                        43

4.4 Household Size of Respondents                        44

4.5 Education Status of Respondents                         44

4.6 Main Occupation of Respondents                        45

4.7 Experience in ornamental plants production                46

4.8 Acquisition of Land by Respondents                    46

4.9 Respondents Sources of Funding                        47

4.10 Distribution of Respondents According to                47

4.11 Size of Nursery of Respondents                        48

4.12 Order of Use of Ornamental Plants                     49

4.13 Period of Sales of Ornamental Plants                    49

4.14 Variable and Fixed Costs of Ornamental Plants Production    51

4.15 Revenue from Ornamental Plants Production                53

4.16 Summary of Regression Statistics for Ornamental Plants        56

4.17 Summary of Regression Statistics for Socio-economic

          Variables                                        58

4.18 Marginal Analysis of Inputs Used by Ornamental

        Plants Producers                                    62

4.19 Test of Hypotheses of Socio Economic Variables            63

4.20 Test of Hypothesis of Independent Variables (Inputs)        64


    1.0     Background Information.

    Horticulture is the branch of plants agriculture concerned with intensively cultured plants used directly by man as fresh foods, esthetics and medicine (Uzo, 1997). Ornamental plants are plants grown either for colourful flowers or decorative leaves. They include a wide range of herbaceous annuals and perennials extensively employed in landscaping for esthetic purposes of colour, fragrance and enhancing serenity in and around the home, public places such as recreation areas, tourist sites and cities. Ornamental plants also modify the micro climate by providing shade, reducing wind speed, helping to increase humidity and absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen (Evans, 1999). Ornamental plants provide sanctuary for birds, insects and numerous other animals. Miscellaneous uses include the offer of cut flowers as gifts to people, friends sportsmen and women and national leaders. In Nigeria, flowers are used to beautify homes. In countries like India, flowers are used to adorn women's hair and decorate pictures of gods, saints and deceased loved ones (National Horticulture Board, 1995).

The major facets of ornamental plants include production of flowers and potted plants, growing of flower bulbs and corms including subsequent arrangement and delivery. Each facet is highly specialized with definite requirements, facilities and technical knowledge (Edmond, 1997). This highly specialized industry involves the growers who produce flowers for wholesale marketers and retail florists who market to the public and contribute occasional services such as packaging and delivery. Current buyers of these plants include individuals who buy to beautify their houses, landscape architects who buy on behalf of institutions for landscaping purposes and hoteliers who buy cut flowers for their customers.

The practice of horticultural plants cultivation in Jos can be traced to as early as 1930s (David, 1999). This was as a result of the activities of tin miners that came to the area under the auspices of Amalgamated Tin Miners of Jos. These Europeans came mainly from British Isles with their wives and siblings. Their wives were quite keen on gardening as their favourite pastime in the absence of regular jobs. These women started gardens at home where they had varieties of imported flowers from their country side. Much later, these Europeans developed interest in some of the locally available fruits, shrubs and hedges. The Europeans started the horticultural society.

Later in the early 1970’s, Nigerians also became interested in the art of flower gardening, encouraged by the Horticultural society during their flowers shows. The government gardens soon took off with Bukuru and Naraguta gardens which were established to encourage gardening, tree planting, and afforestation culture (David, 1999). The Plateau Urban Development Board now known as the Jos Metropolitan Board encouraged the establishment of privately owned commercial gardens in the 1990’s. The idea was for these gardens to occupy vacant plots along the major roads within the city thereby holding the land in trust and also beautifying the environment (David, 1999).

Horticulture in Nigeria gained an impetus by a commitment of $43,433,260 to the National Horticultural Research Institute Ibadan in form of grant for research into the genetic improvement of the plants between 1995 and 1998. Hitherto, the federal government’s financial commitment to horticulture has been low to the tune of 1.2 percent of total allocations for food crop production (Babalola, 1996)

Commercially, there is very active and visible trade in horticultural products which engage and provide employment for some people. Although the actual volume and value of horticultural crops produced and traded are unknown, they are enormous, and contribute substantially to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 1995, the value of agricultural output, made up of crops, livestock, forestry, and fishing amounted to N39.88 billion and constituted 38.6 percent of GDP (Central Bank of Nigeria, 1995). The contributions of horticultural crops were estimated at N2 billion, which was much more than forestry (N1.34 billion) and fishing (N1.23 billion).

Nigerians are gradually becoming aware of the need for a beautiful, manageable and sustainable environment. The high intensity of a flourishing horticultural business in metropolitan centres attests to this fact. However, according to Fawusi (1996), the genetic base of our ornamental production is dangerously narrow, whereas, a lot of plants are awaiting collection and domestication in our forest. Kenya and Cote d’ Ivoire are major exporters of cut flowers into the French market, yet Nigeria has more potential than these countries. Horticultural crops require intensive care. It is therefore necessary to have information on cost of production and returns per naira invested to serve as a basis for motivating farmers to invest in horticultural crops production (Adekunle and Oladoja, 1996).

1.2 Problem Statement

Nigeria's economy is based on oil while its agricultural sector is focused on arable crops. There is a social cost to the failure to recognize the importance of the income supplementing sector (such as floriculture) in absorbing the growing urban labour force and promoting of a more equitable distribution of income. It is becoming difficult to increase employment in agriculture. A growing population has decreased farm size in the study area, leading to expansion into sloppy marginal lands. The result has been widespread degradation of highlands. Crop residue and animal dung are increasingly being used as fuel for cooking rather than for enriching the soil as is practiced in traditional agriculture systems. Livestock production is not promising either, because forage supplies come from unimproved and over-grazed pasture and crop residue.

One major problem inherent with ornamental production is that of access to resources such as land and water. Most areas with water are already occupied and competition arising from other informal entrepreneurs such as block moulding companies abound. Also, access to land due to land-use title typical of an urban setting makes production highly insecure. Lack of knowledge in certain production technologies such as plant protection and economic use of irrigation water can cause considerable losses. Given this situation it is quite important for resources to be used at their most efficient levels. Resource productivity is thus an important matter in determining the sustainability of ornamental production. The resources applied can find alternative uses in other enterprises. They can be sustained in agriculture only if they can be employed economically. It is important to generate information on the resource availability and productivity.

An area which is much unknown is the prospects for the production and exports of ornamental plants (Babatola, 1996). Horticulture was introduced into Nigeria much earlier and given prominence relative to food based agriculture and substantial resources were diverted to it at a period of acute shortage of fund (Ojehomon, 1997). Unfortunately, the floriculture programme could not be sustained because expenditure on this enterprise is accorded in aggregate terms with other horticultural plants, thereby compounding the problem of cost computation (Akinola, et al, 1996). This was alluded to by Kessel (2004) who stated that inspite of the growth and contribution of floriculture to world economy, it is difficult to calculate a naira per hectare return since costs, returns and length of the production cycle changes relative to the type of plant grown.

In all, the problem for investigation can be stated in the following set of questions:

⦁    What are the socio-economic characteristics of ornamental plants owners?

⦁     What are the costs incurred in a typical ornamental nursery?

⦁    How much return does the entrepreneur get from each naira invested?

⦁    Is there any relationship between the quantities of cuttings, labour, manure, pesticides, water, top soil, polythenes/pots, fuel, transportation and rent and the number of plants raised?

⦁    How efficient are resources utilized in nursery plants production?

⦁    Generally, is ornamental plants business profitable?

1.3    Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the resource productivity of ornamental plants production in Jos metropolis, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:­

(i)    Determine the costs and returns of ornamental plants production.

(ii)    Determine resource productivity in ornamental plants production.

(iii)    Identify the effect of socio-economic factors on resource use productivity in ornamental plants production.

(iv)    Make recommendations for policy.

1.4    Research Hypotheses

The null hypotheses to be tested are:

(i)    The socio-economic characteristics of ornamental plants producers have no relationship with resource productivity.

(ii)    There is no relationship between cuttings, labour, manure, pesticides, water, top soil, polythenes/pots, fuel, transportation and rent, and the number of plants raised in the nurseries.

1.5    Justification

Ornamental enterprise is often considered as part of formal economy. What is relevant is that for some urban groups, such an enterprise is extremely important, in that, it is a strategy to maintain a certain level of livelihood. Given the importance of income to the social and economic development of households, this study will help to identify some of the significant socio- economic variables that may be important to agricultural planners in their effort to improve the well-being of the people.

Until recently, the ornamental plant seedling business was considered more of a hobby than a profitable or environmentally important activity. Modernization, urbanization, tourism development, flora and fauna conservation and more importantly the potential to generate employment and income have made the venture an area of further investigation and analysis (Adepoju Et al, 2006).   

In order to achieve optimum production level, resources must be available and used efficiently. Successful and result-oriented farm planning and policies required the knowledge of productivity of farm resources to know the resources whose quantity or rate of use should be increased or decreased (Alimi, 2000). The general objective of farmers is sustainable production at reasonable levels and minimal risk, to satisfy subsistence and commercial needs (Beets, 1990). These needs have increased due to increasing population while land availability has become less over the past decades. Therefore, the only way to increase productivity would be through efficient use of resources on the farm. The study seeks to provide information on resource use efficiency in ornamental plants production. The farm level information to be generated is expected to help fill the information/knowledge gap between resource use and productivity in ornamental plants production. Furthermore, the study will be relevant and of benefit to the academia, farm manager, and those interested in this area. Financial institutions will find the result of the study particularly helpful. This is because knowledge of resource use efficiency and profitability could guide in assessing the viability of the ornamental plants industry, and thus, their willingness to finance it. Also politicians and policy makers will find the study useful in making judgments about equity distribution of resources and design of land reforms.

In the light of the importance of ornamental plants production in supplementing the income of urban dwellers in Nigeria, it becomes necessary to investigate resources used by its producers in the study area. The resources are land, labour, capital and management. The productivity of land needs to be improved in resource poor economies considering the fact that it is a scarce resource. Labour is important in ornamental production for land preparation, mixing of manure, planting, packaging and so on. Its productivity enhances farm income and total income of the household. Capital is another resource in ornamental production in the forms of farm credit, farm tools, chemicals and equipment. Management is a resource that enables decision making and combination of the other factors of production in the production process.




RESEARCHWAP.NET is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing