THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ WELFARE PACKAGE ON TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION
This study was designed to investigate the impact of teachers’ welfare package on Teachers’ job satisfaction in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. As a result, the sample consisted eight secondary schools from which eighty (80) respondents were drawn.
A questionnaire was designed and administered so as to be able to carry out the investigation. Data were gathered and analyzed using the chi-square analysis.
Findings were made which led the researcher to conclude that teachers’ welfare package gave job satisfaction to teachers in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. Recommendations were made accordingly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 6
1.3 Hypotheses 7
1.4 Purpose of Study 8
1.5 Significance of Study 8
1.6 Delimitation of Study 9
1.7 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 13
2.1 Theoretical Framework 14
2.2 Theories of Motivation 15
2.3 Content Theories of Motivation 15
2.4 Process Theories of Motivation 20
2.5 Reinforcement Theory 21
2.6 Equity Theory 31
2.7 Function of Welfare Packages 33
2.8 The National Joint Negotiating Council for Teachers 34
2.9 The Udoji Committee 35
2.10 Agitation of Teachers’ Salary Advancement (TSA) 36
2.11 Procedures on Retirement and other exits in the
Teaching Service 37
2.12 Concepts and Definitions on Job Satisfaction 40
2.13 Effect of Welfare Practice on Job Satisfaction 42
2.14 Summary of Review of Literature 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 44
3.2 Population of the Study 44
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 45
3.4 Research Instrument 45
3.5 Validity of Instrument 46
3.6 Reliability of Instruction 46
3.7 Method of Data Collection 47
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 47
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Hypothesis 1 48
Hypothesis 2 49
Hypothesis 3 51
Hypothesis 4 52
Discussion of Findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 56
5.2 Conclusion 57
5.3 Recommendations 57
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a means of propagating the felt end immediate norms and values of society. It is also a means of sustaining old norms, and values of society. Through education the national aspirations are met.
Subsequently, it is the general consensus that no amount of educational reform or progress would rise above the desires for teachers. It is important to note that for any national aspirations to be met in the areas of education, the teacher factor can not be undermined; he teacher is the heart of the educational progress and also the main determinants of the educational system.
The general notion that teachers are not properly taken care of by government and private sector have to come to mind. The quest for teachers both graduates and non-graduates cannot be undermined, but unfortunately the increasing distaste for the teaching profession is likely to hinder the progress of educational development. The teachers are usually disregarded, hence they are called all sorts of names. The respect which teachers used to enjoy in he missionary days is no longer there, all these tend to inhibit the profession.
The teacher’s welfare packages could be termed as goal-directed behavior. The teacher’s welfare packages are also concerned with the individual’s desires, how they can be accomplished in teacher work situation.
Job satisfaction has been subject of several studies in educational organizations. There have been many publications on it. The pioneering efforts of Hoppock (1997) and Houser (1999) research on the nature, causes and correlates of job satisfaction have mushroomed in educational organizations. Much of the studies on the concept are carried out because it is an interesting area. The concept of job satisfaction rests on the assumption that a satisfied worker is invariably an efficient and effective employee. Many studies equate job satisfaction with employee’s attitude.
Job satisfaction is not simply a matter of need fulfillment although a teacher’s needs may be fulfilled; his feelings of satisfaction will depend very much on whether he thinks that he compares favourably with other people in similar jobs, positions or places. The teacher’s perception of his job situation will be directly related to the values which they place on the various aspects of his job and its environment as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction refers to the accomplishment acquired by experiencing various job activities and rewards. Satisfaction is resulting from the attainment of some desired goal.
The objectives of the 6-3-3-4 system of education are still very valid as at today, if only there are satisfied teachers that are dedicated to carry out their educational functions. These objectives are based on the following: a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliance nation; a great and dynamic economy, and a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.
The other aspects of educational system are taken into consideration. These include finance, infrastructures, facilities and equipments, etc.
The National Joint Negotiating Council for teachers was set up in 1994. The Council submitted numerous recommendations to the government which accepted them in part. There was also the Ashby Committee; the committed was set up by the Federal Government in 1967. One of its terms of reference was the recommending of suitable salary grading for duty posts on the basis of salary scales already approved in the cited sessional paper No. 2 of 1995. There was also the Udoji salary and this recent Teacher Salary Advancement (TSA); eighteen percent minimum wage increment. All these various increments of committees that were set up recommended various teachers welfare packages that were implemented. However, over the years the high cost of living and the quest for better living conditions led to more series of present day agitation on the part of teachers, they have complained about the eighteen percent present day salary, and welfare packages have proved to be inadequate. In other words, the work satisfaction of teachers would dwindle. The trend would invariably affect the products of the educational system and the system in itself.
Against this background, this study would find a means of investigating welfare packages on job satisfaction, the teachers and governments role would be looked into. The following questions would guide in the investigation:
Does the teacher’s welfare package influence teacher’s job satisfaction? To what extent do government regulations on teacher’s welfare packages control teacher’s job satisfaction? Will the timely and continued review of government decision of welfare packages affect teacher’s job satisfaction? Does teacher’s job satisfaction come only from teacher’s welfare package? To what extent are teacher’s welfare packages influence by sex and qualifications?
1.2 Statement of Problem
The president of Nigeria as at May 1st, 2010, promised Nigerian civil servants, teachers inclusive a new welfare packages which recognized the 27.5%, the eighteen thousand naira minimum wage and the teachers’ salary advancement (TSA). The implementation of these new packages like any other has attracted various welfare packages comments. What is the relationship between teacher’s welfare packages on teacher’s job satisfaction. This study was to find out the relationship between teachers’ welfare packages and teacher’s job satisfaction.
1. Does welfare package have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction?
2. Does gender have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction?
3. Does the attitude of the principal have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction?
4. Do government policies have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction?
On the basis of the problems, the following hypotheses are put forward:
1. Welfare package does not significantly have influence on teachers’ job satisfaction.
2. Gender does not significantly have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction.
3. Attitude of principal does not significantly have influence on teachers’ job satisfaction.
4. Government policies do not significantly have influence on teachers’ job satisfaction.
1.4 Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to analyze the welfare package on the job satisfaction usually if teachers are motivated due to good teacher’s welfare packages, the aspiration, objectives and goals of the present 6-3-3-4 system of education would be met, there would be an attraction of qualified and enthusiastic teachers that would facilitate a successful implementation of the nation’s 6-3-3-4 system of education.
1.5 Significance of Study
This study is significant as it will be of assistance to teachers, principals and researchers. It would go a long way in helping both teachers and administrators know the needs and areas where welfare packages would be used to motivate teachers.
Teachers would also be aware of those needs entitled to them. Administrators would be in a better perspective in formulating policies that would be able to be implemented with resource and those that would not encounter problems in the implementation of welfare practices.
1.6 Delimitation of Study
The research covers principals and teachers in secondary schools that make up the present Orhionmwon Local Government Areas of Edo State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Job satisfaction is any combination of environmental circumstances that can cause a person to say “I am satisfied with my job” (Hoppoch, 2001).
The concept of job satisfaction is a compound of various attitudes which a teacher has and exhibits towards his work situation. Satisfaction as used in this study is synonymous with contentment.
Motivation: Motivation is the inner state that energizes, channels and sustains human behavior (Glueck, 1998). Motivation is a complex of forces, drives, needs, tension, states or other internal psychological mechanisms that start and maintain activity toward achievement of personal goals.
Teacher Incentives: Incentives are the organizational counterpart to individual’s motivation, that is, a worker receives incentives from the employing organization in return for being a productive member. Incentive can be taken to be the new rewards or punishments given in exchange for an individual’s contribution to the same thing as job situation.
Work Performance: Vroom (1964) maintains that the level of performance is a constantly increasing function of the motivational level, while conceding that the difficulties in precise measurements make an accurate determination of the function impossible. Performance is a function of ability multiplied by motivation. Performance = F (ability X motivation).
Work is an activity which is directed towards the production of goods and services which typically have a value in exchange, and which is carried out for a valuable consideration. Work is also the expenditure of energy on activities prescribe by oneself or others for the accomplishment of some purpose.
Equity Theory: Equity theory focuses on individual needs factor and the environmental factors particularly rewards. What this study refers to as equity has a central team, that rewards such as pay are important motivators of behavior the major cause (motive) leading to work performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity the employee perceives in the work place. A person perceives an inequity when he or she is under rewarded or over-rewarded.
Performance output Expectancy: When an individual engages in or contemplates a certain behavior, there is in that individual’s mind the expectation of certain consequences from that behavior. For example, a worker who is thinking about doubling his result in praise, more pay or perhaps no reward at all. The worker may even expect that the outcome will affect the individual’s decision on whether or not to proceed with contemplated behavior.
Effort-Performance Expectancy: The individual’s expectations of how difficult it will be to achieve successful performance will also affect the individual’s decision on whether or not to proceed with that performance. For example, an individual may be told that increasing sales by fifty (50) percent will lead to a much desired salary increase. Before deciding whether or not to purse the sale increase, the individual must estimate the probability that he or she will be able to achieve it..